18th Century Podcast Episode 21 Spycraft

Execution of Nathan Hale

Listen here: https://anchor.fm/cj123/episodes/18th-Century-Podcast-Episode-21-Spycraft-e86oi3/a-auf07g

Summary

In today’s episode, we’ll be going over spycraft in the 18th Century. We’ll cover some techniques spies would use to conceal their messages, and some notable spies from the 18th Century like Nathan Hale. We’ll also discuss some spy activity during Benjamin Franklin’s time in Paris. You don’t want to miss this one!

Script

INTRO

Welcome back to the 18th Century Podcast. I am your host, Cj. In today’s episode, we’ll be going over spycraft in the 18th Century. If you’d like to read the script for this episode and its citations, go to 18thcentury.home.blog that’s 1, 8, t h, century dot home dot blog. Type the numbers don’t spell them. Let’s kick things off by talking about a general overview of spycraft in the 18th Century.

PART 1 SPYCRAFT

Robert Townsend, Culper Spy Ring

Spying was frowned upon in the 18th Century. It could lead to a death sentence. There was a view that spying was ungentlemanly. It was an activity that was used but frowned upon. Though States may not openly admit that they used spies, spies were vital in times of war. There were no central intelligence organizations like there are today, but agents or rings were formed when necessary. Perhaps the most famous spy ring in the 18th Century was the Culper Spy Ring, which I did read a few of their letters, however poorly, a couple of episodes ago. I’d recommend checking out the blog post for that episode so you can read the letters yourself. I won’t be going into the Culper Ring today, as that will be a future episode in and of itself. Though spies were used, it was more common for a military to gain intelligence from local sources about their enemy. This could be through local newspapers, rumors, or gossip. People like to talk and information travels. But between spies, they would communicate mainly through letters and coded messages. Ciphers were a popular method of concealing information. Books were sometimes written to decipher the messages. These books would have typically been within the ring only. Another method which also dates back centuries was invisible ink. For example, during the American Revolution, an invisible ink was made by mixing ferrous sulfate and water. The spy would write the hidden message between lines of a letter and then pass it off. To read the message heat or another chemical could be applied. One such chemical which could bring forth the message was sodium carbonate. Now, a British method of transferring information, which could have been used by other States as well, was hidden messages. Hidden messages would be written on small pieces of paper and concealed in an object, which a courier could transfer. One method which I have seen before but I forgot about was masked messages. A masked message was when a message would be concealed in a letter that only could be read if a specially designed shaped template was placed over the letter. Spies have been used for centuries before and centuries after, but I think it’s time we take a look into a small story of spies in France during the second half of the 1770s. 

PART 2 SPIES NESTLED IN PARIS 

Benjamin Franklin in Paris with coon skin cap

This section will be covering part of the American Revolution, and I know I’ve talked about doing my American Revolution series on the podcast for a few episodes. It’s coming… eventually. But I do want to share a small tale concerning spies and Paris during this period. Our tale begins in 1776 when the new Congress of the United States sends Benjamin Franklin to France as a diplomat. His mission is to gain French support for the American Cause. I think it goes without saying how famous Benjamin Franklin was in Paris. The French loved him, and I’ll dive deeper into this when I do a bio on Benjamin Franklin. However, there were still some under the table dealings Franklin did while in France. Franklin had amassed a connection of friends in France and Agents working under him. Franklin would launch a series of schemes while also conducting diplomacy. One such instance was a successful piece of propaganda against the British on their turf. One ploy of propaganda was giving false newspaper stories of Britain’s Native American allies which stipulated that the Natives were committing horrendous acts on the frontier. The ploy would pay off as it caused a further division in Parliament. Franklin’s agents would amass a bounty of British Naval movements. I think this goes without saying how well connected he truly was. The British Ambassador to France was quoted as saying about Franklin, quote, “veteran of mischief,” unquote. Franklin was clever, but one thing he never found out during his time in Paris, was that his then Secretary, Edward Bancroft, was an agent for the British. Edward would write the intelligence on Franklin in invisible ink, then he would leave it at a dead drop where Paul Wentworth, the man in charge of British espionage in Paris, would pick it up. The information gathered by Edward would successfully make it’s way to the direct hands of King George III. However, the information collected on Franklin was mostly in vain. King George III, for the most part, dismissed the information collected. Franklin did come to suspect there was a mole in his midst and he would on occasion, send false information as a way to trap the British Agent. He never did figure out it was his own Secretary. Now, the French had their very own well-connected spy ring in their Capitol. The French would spy on citizens and foreigners alike. The French agents would gather their information through a plethora of ways, among which were, gossip, and pillow talk after relations. It goes without saying, the French had spies placed on Franklin. Franklin, of course, was aware he was being watched. He knew both about the British and the French, though he may not have known the exact identity of all the spies placed on him. After the Americans claimed victory of the Battle of Saratoga, the British were considering to find a way to reconcile with the Americans. Franklin became aware of this and hatched a plan which would help encourage the French to support the American cause. Though the French were not in the conflict as of yet, a prolonged conflict could have benefited the French over their most hated adversary, the British. Franklin pretended he was interested in talking with the British. Possibly, he implied opening a dialogue with them. This was discovered by French agents, and the information was passed along. The French panicked. They hastened for a deal giving support to the Americans. Through careful maneuvering, and playing the agents on him, Franklin’s plan was realized. Now, we’re going to take a short break, and when we come back for the second half of this episode, we’re going to take a look at some notable spies in the 18th Century. Don’t go away.

PART 3 PROMINENT SPIES

Nathan Hale

Welcome back. We’ll continue the second half of today’s show discussing some of the most prominent spies in the 18th Century. I’m going to start this off with one of the most famous spies in the 18th Century Nathan Hale. Nathan Hale was a graduate of Yale and a schoolteacher from Connecticut. When the American War for Independence broke out Nathan joined the Connecticut regiment in 1775. He would gain the rank of Captain. During the early phases of the War, Washington needed intelligence on the British. Young Nathan volunteered to go and spy on their adversary on September 10th, 1776. He would disguise himself as a Dutch Schoolmaster and sneak past British lines on Long Island. Hale would spend the next few days collecting intelligence on British troop movements. On September 21st, Hale attempted to cross back to American lines, but he was captured by the British. Hale would be interrogated by British General William Howe. General Howe would discover incriminating documents on Hale’s person. General Howe ordered the execution of Hale for the following morning. Nathan Hale would receive no trail. The 21-year-old marched to the gallows, and purportedly his final words were, quote, “I only regret that I have but one life to give for my country,” unquote. Hale would go down as one of the most famous spies in 18th Century history, even though he failed his mission and had no training or experience in spycraft.

Charles Théveneau de Morande

Let’s transition to a successful spy, one over in Europe, a French spy named, Charles Théveneau de Morande. I will hence refer to him as Charles. Charles was a lawyer’s son, and he served in the Seven Years War. After the Seven Years War, Charles made his way to Paris where he would indulge himself in Vice. Things would get heated for him and he fled Paris in 1770 to London to avoid being arrested. In London, he would print pamphlets attacking King Louis XV’s mistress. Louis XV was furious with Charles’s activities. He wanted the man extradited or kidnaped if possible, but his attempts bore no fruit. When initial revenge attempts failed, the King decided to attempt another plan. He plotted to turn Charles into a spy, and he sent Pierre-Augustin Caron de Beaumarchais to London to recruit Charles. Pierre-Augustin was in disgrace at the time from losing two court cases in the 1770s. Seeking redemption, Pierre-Augustin traveled to London to recruit Charles. The French Foreign Minister, Charles de Vergennes, also saw our Charles as someone worth investing in. Charles had a knack for uncovering secrets and publishing them in pamphlets, and his outspokenness against the French King would add a layer of protection against British suspicion. During the American War of Independence, Charles kept track of ship movements out of British ports, and very successfully at that. He continued his service spying on the British after the war as well. He would go on and recruit high up engineers to his side. Charles became the editor of a prominent French newspaper in London, Courier de l’Europe. This new position would further give him credence for information gathering. The paper was a massive hit across Europe, but not so much in Parliament. The British Parliament viewed it as a sort of open espionage during the American War of Independence. The allegations that the paper was, in fact, a form of espionage were basically true. The British eventually banned the exportation of the paper. But it’s Naval Officer and Enturepenure, Samuel Swinton, smuggled it out. Samuel was a British spy and used the paper as a means to enter France where he would conduct operations on the Americans and French. All the while Charles was printing hidden messages in paragraphs in the paper which were codded for French intelligence. During the American Revolution, The French helped set up a ring with Charles were he would have multiple couriers in a sort of loose network as not to arouse suspicion. The British did suspect Charles as an agent for France, but they never gathered proof. Charles would remain in Great Britain until 1791 when he made his return to France.

Eva Löwen

Our final spy for today comes from Sweden. Eva Löwen was born in 1743 and the daughter of the Governor-General. Her family was well politically connected. When her father was appointed as the Governor-General, the family moved. At their new home, Eva would meet her future husband Fredrik Ribbing. Fredrik was politically well connected himself and was close to the Royal couple. Eva would find herself in the heart of Swedish politics in the mid-1760s. Eva would become popular in Swedish high society. She was characterized as witty, and admirable, but also renowned for her… escapades in the private company of others. I trust you understand what I’m getting at. She became a lover of the French Ambassador to Sweden, Louis Auguste Le Tonnelier de Breteuil. Gustav III attempted to initiate a relationship with Eva, but she rejected his advances. She had other relations with high ranking men in Swedish society, and this may have gained the interest of the French. In the years before Gustav III’s coup, she was on a list of recipients receiving a pension from the French Government. After Gustav III’s successful coup and coronation of 1772, Eva grew closer with him as a friend and they spent their time in grand conversation. Everything would fall apart with the death of Eva’s husband in 1783. Eva would first move in with Gustaf Macklean, a person she previously had a connection to. Gustav III began to fall out of favor. Eva’s son became a part of an assassination plot to kill King Gustav III. Her son had influence from what was occurring in France at the time. After the assassination of Gustav III, he was sentenced to death, but received a pardon and was expelled from Sweden and stripped of nobility. Eva and Gustaf Macklean accompanied her son first to Paris, and then to Switzerland. Eva and Gustaf would marry in 1796 and moved into a Manor in Sweden. Eva died at home in 1813.

OUTRO

This brings us to the end of this week’s episode. Spies and their history is certainly a fascinating topic. I learned a few things this week which I did not expect, and I hope you did as well. The script and citations for this episode and all other episodes can be found at 18thcentury.home.blog that’s 1, 8, t h, century dot home dot blog. Type the numbers don’t spell them. If you’d like to support the show, please share it and leave a review. I’ve been your host Cj, and thank you for listening to this episode of the 18th Century Podcast.

CITATIONS

“Spy Techniques of the Revolutionary War.” George Washington’s Mount Vernon, https://www.mountvernon.org/george-washington/the-revolutionary-war/spying-and-espionage/spy-techniques-of-the-revolutionary-war/.

Crews, Ed. “Spies and Scouts, Secret Writing, and Sympathetic Citizens.” Spies and Scouts, Secret Writing, and Sympathetic Citizens : The Colonial Williamsburg Official History & Citizenship Site, 2004, https://www.history.org/Foundation/journal/Summer04/spies.cfm.

HistoryExtraAdmin. “18th Century Espionage: the French Spy in London.” HistoryExtra, 10 Oct. 2018, https://www.historyextra.com/period/georgian/18th-century-espionage-the-french-spy-in-london/.

“Nathan Hale Is Executed by the British for Spying.” History.com, A&E Television Networks, 13 Nov. 2009, https://www.history.com/this-day-in-history/patriot-executed-for-spying.

Eva Helena Löwen, http://www.skbl.se/sv/artikel/EvaLowen, Svenskt kvinnobiografiskt lexikon (article by Brita Planck), retrieved 2019-10-25.

18th Century Podcast Episode 20 Catherine the Great

Catherine the Great

Listen here: https://anchor.fm/cj123/episodes/18th-Century-Podcast-Episode-20-Catherine-the-Great-e7s0ok/a-atdqu8

Summary

In today’s episode, we’ll be going over the life of Catherine the Great. From being a foreigner of Russia to it’s Empress, learn with me about the life of one of Russia’s greatest rulers as she brought in it’s golden age.

Script

INTRO

Welcome back to the 18th Century Podcast. I am your host, Cj. In today’s episode, we’ll be going over the life of Catherine the Great. I thought this was appropriate to make this episode now given the fact that HBO is releasing a miniseries about Catherine the Great, which comes out this Monday, October 21st, 2019. I am not endorsed by HBO. If you’d like to read the script for this episode and its citations, go to 18thcentury.home.blog that’s 1, 8, t h, century dot home dot blog. Type the numbers don’t spell them. Let’s kick things off by taking a look at Catherine’s early life.

PART 1 EARlY LIFE

Catherine the Great young

Cathrine was born on May 2, 1729. But her name wasn’t Cathrine at the time. Her birth name was Sophia Frederike Auguste, and she was born in Stettin, Prussia. Her father was Prussian Prince Christian August von Anhalt-Zerbst. Her mother was Princess Johanna Elisabeth of Holstein-Gottorp. Though her family was royalty, money was sparse. She would be educated by a French governess, among other tutors. Her education was common for a person of her rank. She was instructed in French and German. She also had lessons in history, music, and religion. She was brought up in the Lutheran faith. She would first meet her future husband who also happened to be her second cousin when she was ten. This meeting took place as a political arrangement by Peter III’s aunt, Empress Elizabeth of Russia. Sophia did not like Peter III on their first meeting, as she found him to be detestable. Empress Elizabeth took a liking to Sophia. Sophia would travel to Russia in 1744 with the prospect of marriage to Peter III. The reason for their union was pure politics. It was an arrangement between Frederick the Great and Empress Elizabeth, to strengthen the ties between their countries. Sophia would learn the Russian language, and do it with a fervent passion. Though her accent would remain foreign, She became near fluent in the language. In March of 1744, she did suffer a bout of phenomena, but it didn’t keep her down for long. In 1745, Sophia would convert to Eastern Orthodoxy, and received the new name, Catherine. Her father disapproved of her conversion, as being a devout Luthern himself. The day after Catherine converted, she formally married Peter III. Their marriage ceremony took place on August 21st. Her father would not travel to Russia to attend the ceremony. After their wedding, they settled into a palace. Their marriage wouldn’t go down in history as a happy one. Peter would spend his time making people act out drills, playing with toy soldiers, and chasing women. He supposedly had a consort. Catherine was rumored to have multiple consorts herself, but she also enjoyed passing the time by reading. The pair would produce a son, who was welcomed into the world in 1754, he was named Paul and would become a future Czar of Russia. Unfortunately for Catherine, her son was taken from her almost immediately after his birth. He was to be raised under the guise of his grandmother, Empress Elizabeth. Cathrine was allowed to see her son briefly during his christening a month later, and then again six months afterward. Peter had little to no interest in being a parent, but from what I can infer, Cathrine did. She would produce another child, and this time it would be a daughter, Anna, who would tragically die an infant in 1757. She would produce one more son, Alexi. Then in 1762, Empress Elizabeth died, leaving Peter III to take the throne. 

PART 2 THE COUP

Catherine the Great military riding a horse

In 1762, Empress Elizabeth died, which then Peter ascended to the throne as the Czar of Russia. Cathrine and Peter III moved from their Winter Palace to Saint Petersburg. Peter III had a fascination with Fredrick the Great, but his fascination seemed to alienate some of the Russian politicians. He changed sides in the Seven Years War, allying himself with his once enemy, Prussia. Cathrine wasn’t a big fan of her husband’s new policies either. There was a dispute between the Duchy of Holstein and Denmark over a province. Peter III started to gear up for war against Denmark over this dispute, but he didn’t find much support for it in the Capitol. Many politicians viewed the possible war as unnecessary, and a waste. Along with disgruntled politicians, Cathrine hatched a plot to overthrow her husband and take the throne for herself. During July of 1762, Peter III took a holiday along with his Holstein-born courtiers and relatives. He was just about six months into his reign at this point. Cathrine and her conspirators plotted the whole time, but their plan would have to move quicker than they thought. July 8th, 1762, Cathrine is woken in the night being informed that one of the conspirators has been arrested. The time to act is now. Cathrine raced out of the palace and made her way to a regiment of soldiers. She gave a speech asking for their protection, and the swore fealty to her. The regiment followed her as she made her way to the Semenovsky Barracks, where members of the clergy were waiting for her. The orthodox clergy ordained Cathrine as Empress of Russia. Now with the military backing her, the clergy, and some members of the State, she had everything in place. The only thing left was for Peter III to formally abdicate. Under Catherine’s orders, Peter III was arrested, and he signed a document formally abdicating. On July 17th, Peter III was killed. He reigned for about six months in total. It is not known if Catherine had a hand in his death. But now, everything was in place for Catherine to rule. We’re going to take a short break, and when we come back we’ll discuss Catherine’s time as Empress.

PART 3 EMPRESS OF RUSSIA

Catherine the Great Empress of Russia

Welcome back. Cathrine’s reign would bring Russia into a golden age. She was an advocate of The Enlightenment and implemented its ideas into her rule. Yet those ideas would be set in the years to come. One of her first acts as Empress was to recall the troops sent to fight Denmark, which prevented a war. This was a popular decision among the military at the time and granted her more of their favor. Under Peter, church land was seized, Cathrine returned the land to the church. However, later in her reign, she would nationalize the church. She attempted to model herself after Peter the Great. He was still a popular figure even after a few decades since his passing. She would also push for domestic reform to benefit her subjects. She advocated for a document known as the Nakaz, which would have outlawed capital punishment and torture. It also sought to see every man equal before the law. She also attempted to set reforms for the benefit of the serfs but it wasn’t popular in the Senate. She eventual got the Nakaz finalized. What happened next was the formation of the Legislative Commission, which would conduct its first meeting in 1767. No laws were brought forth from the Legislative Commission, but Russians from across the country got together to discuss matters for the first time in their history. The Legislative Commission was disbanded in 1768 when war broke out with the Ottomans. But this was triggered by conflict in Poland. She had made decent gains in Poland and gifted the country to one of her ex-lovers. Russia had a dispute by how Russian Orthodox practitioners were treated in Poland and this lead to the conflict. In 1772 the partition of Poland would occur. Her military escapades angered the Ottomans and they went to war with one another. In a way, this was a political blessing. She gained many victories over the Ottomans and established Russia as a military power in the world. She reached a peace treaty with the Ottomans in 1774, and yet again would expand Russian territory. On the homefront, however, she would face numerous peasant revolts. The peasants, or serfs, were tied to their owners, essentially being treated like slaves in all but name. between 1762 to 1769 there were around 50 minor revolts, all of which were put down. This tension would come to a head with Pugachev’s Rebellion, which lasted from 1773 to 1775. The serfs had some initial success but were eventually squashed. The leader of the rebellion was betrayed and captured. He was beheaded in Moscow in 1775, thus ending the rebellion. Cathrine’s early attitudes of liberalizing Russia were diminished after the rebellion. She wished to rescind the reforms she had made in favor of the serfs. During the 18th Century, Russia was viewed as a backwoods country with outdated ideas. Cathrine sought to bring Russia back into the light of her fellow Europeans. She implemented many education reforms and expanded educational opportunities for both boys and girls. In 1766, the Russian Cadet Corp school received some reforms. This military academy was more liberalized and began to teach other subjects along with the cadets’ military education. On the religious front, she was more relaxed in her personal life but understood the church as a political tool. The nationalization of the church would help fund the State’s treasury. She was more tolerant of other beliefs though. In 1773 she passed the Toleration of All Faiths Edict. This allowed Muslims living within Russia to practice their religion and build mosques. Though she was a little strict with Roman Catholics, she was more lenient to Jesuits. In her personal life, she was a fan of the arts. As someone who had entertained the ideas of The Enlightenment, she did have a correspondence with Voltaire.

PART 4 FINAL YEARS

Catherine the Great old age

In her final years of life, Cathrine grew more and more conservative in her views. In 1785 she issued the Charter of the Nobility. The Charter would grant more power to the Nobility which was a reversal of what she wished to accomplish in her younger years. During the same year, it was declared that the Jewish population was foreign. Taxes would double for the Jews within Russia. In 1794, she declared Jews to have no relation with the State of Russia. Her relationship with her son Paul was poor, and she favored her grandchildren more, in particular, her grandson, Alexander. As she grew older her mind remained active and did not falter. She would see one more war in her life, this time with the Turks or Ottomans. They declared war on Russia in 1787, and the fighting would last four years resulting in a Russian victory and expansion of territory. In the 1790s, there were rebellions from Poland, but the country eventually got annexed out of existence between Russia, and her allies. As time dragged on in the 1790s, Cathrine would grow more and more concerned with her son Paul. She saw him as emotionally unfit, and this might liken back to her late husband. She preferred her grandson Alexander to be her heir, but she did not have time to make the official change. On November 17th, 1796, Cathrine the Great, died of a stroke.

OUTRO

Cathrine was a towering figure of the 18th Century and truly was one of the greats. I found her story fascinating. Again, the HBO miniseries on Cathrine is premiering Monday, October 21st, 2019. I’m not endorsed by HBO. I’ll probably watch the series, and I might give a review of it once it’s finished. The script and citations for this episode and all other episodes can be found at 18thcentury.home.blog that’s 1, 8, t h, century dot home dot blog. Type the numbers don’t spell them. If you’d like to support the show, please share it and leave a review. I’ve been your host Cj, and thank you for listening to this episode of the 18th Century Podcast.

CITATIONS

Lewis, Jone Johnson. “Biography of Catherine the Great, Empress of Russia.” ThoughtCo, Sep. 15, 2019, thoughtco.com/catherine-the-great-p2-3528624.

“Catherine II.” Biography.com, A&E Networks Television, 21 June 2019, https://www.biography.com/royalty/catherine-ii.

Pettinger, Tejvan. “Biography of Catherine the Great”, Oxford, UK. www.biographyonline.net. Published 27/02/2010. Last updated 13 February 2018.

“History – Catherine the Great.” BBC, BBC, http://www.bbc.co.uk/history/historic_figures/catherine_the_great.shtml.

Boundless. “Boundless World History.” Lumen, https://courses.lumenlearning.com/boundless-worldhistory/chapter/catherine-the-great-and-russia/.

18th Century Podcast: Episode 19 Culper Letters

Benjamin Tallmadge

Listen here: https://anchor.fm/cj123/episodes/18th-Century-Podcast-Episode-19-Culper-Letters-e6ol5u/a-argpk5

Summary

In this unscripted episode of the 18th Century Podcast, listen to me stumble reading 3 of the Culper Letters from the American Revolution. The Culper Spy Ring was the first American Spy ring.

Letters

Enclosure
Samuel Culper to Major Benjamin Tallmadge

No. 7

Jany 22. 1779

Sir

Your No. 4 came to hand, And observed the Contents. Your approbation of my Intelligence is highly pleasing to me. I Shall use my best endevours to Serve you and think I am under good advantages to do it. I cannot give you any Incouragement about makeing any Incursion on L. Island with Small parties. I know not of any Officer So detached from his Corps that a Small Party might Surprise him, I must Informe you that Continentall Money will not Serve me; It is much lower here now than it was Some time ago, It now Sells for 15 p. C., Priced current See Separate The danger I apprehended of miscairage mentiond in my last was owing to my freinds fear (the Enemy lately being very Strict) but hath bene no disservice, As nothing Material transpired in the Interim, Except the Storme did Some damge to the Shiping. The Mail that arived mentioned in my last brought nothing Material that I Could lerne. Within few days have had an opportunity of Safely Visiting allmost every Quarter of the Enemy have had two agreeable Tours with good Company to Kings Brige Spent Some time at Genl Tryons Quarters and treated with respect, Tryon Said the War was almost at an end, and that Peace Would be made in Urope. I do not in the leas doubt it but in two Month Amarican Independence will be Acknowledged by Britan; I Could not discover any thing different from what I have heretofore informed you of except the 44 Regn. is there and think now you have Certainly got an account of every Regn. on the Two Islands I Shall betwixt now and the Midle of march give you a new account of the Genl and Regn. on the three Islands—the Cork Fleet Consisted of 28 Ships, Sailed under Convoy of the Maria Friget & the Notinham East Indiaman and about Christmas they were Separated by a violent Gale of Wind and have bene ever Since the 10 Instant Continualy droping in togather with Some Ships from Hallifax and Some Comeing up from Staten Island that made it So difficult although upon the Spot I Cannot Certainly determin how hath arived but fully beleive their Missing Perhaps Eight or ten. They have Such a Supply of Provision now that they Will not Suffer their is a Fleet from Engld dayly expected with near 5000 Barrels of flour Mostly Private Property which will all help to Serve them that you need not have any hopes of Starveing them out now the English Papers Say the French & Spanish Fleets hath Joyned and gone against Gibralter amounting to Seventy five Sail of the line and many other Such favourable accounts their is about 40 or 50 Troops With baggage and Woman that was left as gards at Hempsteed & Jerico on their March to South Hampton—It is Suspectd their is an expedition on foot Perhaps to make Some little Incursion into the Country for to plunder We dayly now expect the kings Speech Shall forward it asson as it arives and wish it may be favourable in the mean time I remain your most Obt Hl. Servt

Samuel Culper

Enclosure
Samuel Culper to Major Benjamin Tallmadge

No. 17

20 July 9. 1779

Sir

It is now, a long time Since I have heard from you—And wheather you mean to Continue the coresspondence—I Cannot tell or your Coast So Interupted thats impractible nevertheless I have not neglected my duty and determined to be Prepared exactly at every appointment that 40, may not be detaind here—I yesterday had an Opportunity of Seeing Mr Culper Junr And repeated—again all my instructions ever received from you have keep no Secret from him—And have Consulted every thing and hes determined to Pursue every Step that he may Judge for advantage and is determined asson as I can comunicate to him your authority for my engageing him, he will disengage himself from every other buisiness which at Present affords him a handsom liveing—hes Aloued to be a person of good Sence and Judgment And his firmeness and friendship towards our Country I do assure you need not doubt I have known him Several years, and Confident he is a Sincere freind. And will be frugal of all Moneys he may receive And hath undertaken it Solely for to be Some advantage to our distressed Country—And have determined to forward you for the future Weekly Intelligence if Possible. As I have Concluded to remain here as long as I Possible Can (Although I look upon my Self all the time in danger) for the Sole Purpos of advantage to our Corespondence.

Below is what Intelligene I Could gain from C. Jur, it is but trifeling but he assured thers nothing more worthy of notice on the 4 10 Sail arrived from Hallifax under Convoy of the Romulus of 44 guns with about one hundred of the new raised Scotch beleive the Duck of Athols. Same day 10 Sail Sailed for Cork on the 6 10 Sail of Merchantmen from the West Indes but Brought nothing new only that Adml Byron was a Cruseing for a reinforcement that was expected to Joyne Count De Estang. on the 4 a Packet arrived from Georgia With an Account of Genl Prevosst being with his Army 16 Miles South of C Town on St Johns Island, hardly any thing is said about the enemy in that Quarter. he tells me the Spirits of the Enemy in Genl are much Lower than heretofore or Some time gone and that he hrd a very Noted Refugee Say there Would certainly be a Peace or a Spanish war in four weeks. the times groes worse within the Enemys lines and Protection for those Called rebels is allmost Banished, in fact Refugees they are let loss to Punder within and without their lines Parties of them are hideing in the Woods and laying Wait for the unwary and Ignorant to deceive them puting on the Charecter of Peopele from your Shore and have Succeeded in there design too well, carried of 10 or 12 Men and Striped their houses lately from about 20, the Roads from here to 10 is infested by them, and likewise the Shores that Maks our Corespondence very dangerous and requires great Cair and a Strict observance of the before mentioned Charecters and circumstances that may tend to discover the Scheam of raising a Regmt of Men by a Draughft of the Millita of L. Island is not Dropt nor Put in Practice. I With Sorrow beheld the Smock of your Towns. And very desereous to here the event. from the report of guns it is Judged you made a desparate defence, Freinds are all in health And Wish for their deliverans. and in the Interim am yours Sincerely

Samuel Culper

N.B.—Culper Jur Should now be furnished With Some Money I gave him 4 Joes on the 8 Instant.

Enclosure
Samuel Culper to Major Benjamin Tallmadge

20 July 15 1779

Sir

Mr C. Junr informed me at our Intervew that Christofer Dycink Sail Maker of 10 formerly Chairman of the Committee of Mechanicks is amongst you and is positively an agent for David Mathews Mayor of 10, under the direction of Tryon. he assisted Mathews John Rome—and others in effecting their escape Mr C. Junr Wishes for Some of that Ink or Stain that he may Paint out his Charecter to you—dont fail to forward it Imediately. And When you receive the History of his Conduct be very Causious how you handle it for if it Should get to the above Mentioned Persons ears Cu. Junr tells me They would imediately Suspect him—In the mean Time I Would advise and is approved on by Culper Junr Obtain the Mayors Signature and let a Letter be wrote Sutable for deception—and let it be handed him by Some Person of good address Praying his assistance to escape from the Tiranny of Congress which is the terme used by the Mayor—or Sometheng like this Plan I do not doubt will have the desireed effect John Rome is Secretary to M. Genl Jones—it is not in my Power to favour you with the Mayors Signature at Present. I am your &c.

Samuel Culper

Citations

“Enclosure: Samuel Culper to Major Benjamin Tallmadge, 22 January 1779,” Founders Online, National Archives, accessed September 29, 2019, https://founders.archives.gov/documents/Washington/03-19-02-0092-0002. [Original source: The Papers of George Washington, Revolutionary War Series, vol. 19, 15 January–7 April 1779, ed. Philander D. Chase and William M. Ferraro. Charlottesville: University of Virginia Press, 2009, pp. 100–102.]

“Enclosure: Samuel Culper to Major Benjamin Tallmadge, 9 July 1779,” Founders Online, National Archives, accessed September 29, 2019, https://founders.archives.gov/documents/Washington/03-21-02-0576-0002. [Original source: The Papers of George Washington, Revolutionary War Series, vol. 21, 1 June–31 July 1779, ed. William M. Ferraro. Charlottesville: University of Virginia Press, 2012, pp. 710–712.]

“Enclosure: Samuel Culper to Major Benjamin Tallmadge, 15 July 1779,” Founders Online, National Archives, accessed September 29, 2019, https://founders.archives.gov/documents/Washington/03-21-02-0576-0003. [Original source: The Papers of George Washington, Revolutionary War Series, vol. 21, 1 June–31 July 1779, ed. William M. Ferraro. Charlottesville: University of Virginia Press, 2012, pp. 712–713.]

18th Century Podcast Episode 18 English Dinner Party

18th century cooking

Listen here: https://anchor.fm/cj123/episodes/18th-Century-Podcast-Episode-18-English-Dinner-Party-e635st/a-aq6g8m

Summary

In today’s episode, we will be discussing the subject of the English Dinner Party from the 18th Century. I’ll be going over a few recipes too.

Script

INTRO

Welcome back to the 18th Century Podcast. I am your host, Cj. In today’s episode, we will be discussing the subject of the English Dinner Party from the 18th Century. I’ll be going over a few recipes too. Some of the food mentioned and the recipes provided in this episode I got from the 18th Century Cooking, series on youtube put out by Townsends. I’ll provide links to their videos at the bottom of the script post for this episode. If you’d like to read the script for this episode and its citations, go to 18thcentury.home.blog that’s 1, 8, t h, century dot home dot blog. Type the numbers don’t spell them. Let’s begin this episode by taking a look at the dinner party from the 18th Century.

PART 1 THE DINNER

I think talking about the dinner itself is a good place to commence. We’ll be taking a look at this from primarily an English perspective. More specifically, for the upper class. Dinner was a very formal meal. You could say it was regarded as the most important meal. There were instances of women taking the time to change clothes specifically for dinner. Men would also prepare themselves for dinner but would usually take less time than women. It was important especially for the young to dress well, for if they were single, these dinners might lead to courtship. Dessert after the dinner was considered less formal than the dinner itself. Each house had its own set time for dinner and the hours would vary. When having guests, the dinner would commence once the Lady of the house would request the most prominent woman guest to bring the other ladies to the table. Going off of this cue, the Master of the house would do the same for the men. The host and hostess would seat themselves first. The Master would sit at the foot of the table, and the Lady would sit at the head. After this, the most senior Lady would pick her place at the table, once she sat, the other guests were free to pick their spots. However, it was more socially acceptable to place oneself regarding social rank. During the first half of the Century, guests were expected to bring their own flatware, but that custom was disregarded during the second half of the century. Forks would be placed on the left, and the spoons with the knives would be placed on the right. You would not eat with a fork. The fork was reserved for holding meat in place while you cut it. The knives were broad at the time and did not come to a point. You would place your food on your knife and consume it using that utensil. When the dinner knives lost their point at the end, we began to see the beginnings of toothpicks. An interesting piece regarding napkins as they were in use in the early part of the century. However, they fell out of favor for the English, being viewed as too French. Dinner guests were thus expected to wipe their mouths with the table cloth instead. An interesting thing of note is once the guests were seated, the plates were not yet on the table. Kitchens were typical further away from the dining table, so once they reached the table they were typically lukewarm. The plates were kept near a fire or specialty warmers while the food arrived. Plates were then placed in front of the guests, so the plate could act as a vessel to reheat the food. The wine or beer glasses were kept chilled with ice brought from an ice house. We can infer that if they were using ice to chill their glasses, it was a symbol of status. Ice was expensive, so if you could afford to use some, it was a subtle way to flaunt your wealth. The wealthy would eat off of porcelain plates among the other dishes, and they were typically white with a blue pattern upon them. Centerpieces were also common, and they could be a multitude of things, such as sugar sculptures. These centerpieces could have been used as a topic of conversation. Servants would handle the food and dishes on the table. The dinner would be served in multiple corses. How each course was arranged on the table was an art in and of itself, and there were books dedicated to the topic. Typically there would be two courses and dessert. Each course could contain anywhere from five to around twenty-five dishes. As a guest, you were not expected to try something from every dish. The layout would typically be as follows with some variation: Meat dishes in the middle of the table, sides would be on the corners, soup would be placed at one end, and fish at the other. The meal would begin with the guests being served soup. Wine would be served with the meal. If you wished to take a drink, there was a sort of ritual to it. If a guest wished to take a drink they first had to make eye contact with another guest and raise your glass. Once the person you made eye contact with raises their glass, you may take a sip. However, you then must wait for someone to make eye contact with you and raise a glass before you can take another sip during the dinner. Each guest would eat from two to three dishes per course. The amounts they took were at their discretion. If a guest wanted something from across the table, they would have a servant retrieve it for them. Once the first course was complete, the dishes would be removed from the table. A new tablecloth, plates, and flatware were brought forth to the guests. The second course would consist of lighter foods, yes there were meats, but there was also jellies and tarts. You could view the second corse as a bridge between the first and the dessert. Though other beverages were sometimes available such as beer or ale, wine was preferred. Port and sherry were popular. I would like to note, you may find wine called sac, but sac was the equivalent of sweet sherry.

After the second course finished, the tablecloth would be removed and not replaced. Desserts would consist of small cakes, dried fruits, candied fruit and the like. The Gentleman attending would drink port typically, and the ladies would consume a sweet wine. The dinner rules relaxed once dessert was served. You no longer had to make eye contact with another to drink, you could simply drink. Other formalities such as seating went away with dessert. Guests could rearrange themselves to sit however they wished. The topics of conversation became more relaxed as more coarse topics were now allowed to be discussed. A curious rule regarding relieving oneself was present. It was considered rude to leave the table during the actual dinner if you felt as though you had to use the bathroom. To accommodate this, a chamberpot was kept off to the side of the room for guests to use, so they could relieve themselves without breaking the flow of conversation. The dinner itself would last about two hours. Once the meal was complete, a glass of wine was served to each guest. When everyone had finished this glass of wine, the hostess would stand and a servant would open the doors. The ladies would follow their hostess out of the dining room and into the drawing-room. The gentleman would remain in the dining room drinking and conversing with one another. Now we’re going to take a short break, and when we come back, we’ll take a look at some of the foods served and the preparation of the dinner parties. We’ll be right back.

PART 2 RECIPIES

Welcome back. We’ll continue the second half of today’s episode by briefly discussing 18th Century recipes. I tried to find information about 18th Century English Kitchens, but there is surprisingly very little information about that topic online. So, I’ll be giving you three recipes that may have been consumed at an English Dinner Party. Some of the recipes I’m providing here came from the Townsends youtube series, 18th Century Cooking. On the blog post for this episode, I’ll provide the video links so you can follow along at home. I highly recommend watching their videos, as they are simply fantastic. The first recipe will come from Mrs. Glasse’s book, The Art of Cookery Made Plain and Easy. The recipe we will be making is called, To Dress a Duck with Green Peas. As a side note, green peas were very popular during the 18th Century. Alright, the recipe is as follows, quote, “Put a deep stew-pan over the fire, with a piece of fresh butter; singe your duck and flour it, turn it in the pan two or three minutes, then pour out all the fat but let the duck remain in the pan : put to it a pint of good gravy, a pint of peas, two lettuces cut small, a small bundle of sweet herbs, a little pepper and salt, cover them close, and let them stew for half an hour, now and then give then pan a shake ; when they are just done, grate in a little nutmeg, and put in a very little beaten mace, and thicken it either with a piece of butter rolled in flour, or the yolk of an egg beat up with two or three spoonfuls of cream ; shake it all together for three or four minutes, take out the sweet herbs lay the duck in the dish, and pour the sauce over it. You may garnish with boiled mint chopped, or let it alone.” Unquote. The next recipe will be for a version of macaroni and cheese from Townsends video, “Macaroni” – A Recipe From 1784. First, start by boiling 4 oz. of short tube pasta which should be around an inch and a half. After it has finished boiling, strain the pasta through a sieve to let it dry. The put it in a frying pan topped with a jill of heavy cream, and a ball of butter rolled in flour. Place the pan over the fire or a stove for about five minutes. Take the pan off and put the contents in a bowl. Top it with a lot of parmesan cheese, and toast it with a salamander. You’ll want the cheese to lightly brown. If you’d like, you could add a little pepper to top it off. For our final recipe which also comes from Townsends, we’ll make, a cream puff, or as they title it, “Whipt Cream, Like Snow” – Not Your Typical Whipped Cream. To make this, start by boiling about 1 cup of water. Add about a tablespoon of sugar. Next, add a little lemon zest. Then you’ll want to add about 4 oz. of butter. Then add a little salt. Slowly add in flour while stirring, and when it begins to separate from the sides, take it off the oven or fire. Let it cool a little but still keep it warm. Add eggs in one by one and thoroughly stir each one in. You’ll want it to get to a smooth silky texture. Around three eggs should do. Add blobs of the batter to a cooking sheet. Set your oven to 375 and put it in for about a half-hour. While that’s baking, begin the work on the cream. To a large bowl, add a pint of heavy cream. Add sugar to taste (perhaps a quarter cup). Then the juice of a lemon. Next, add about a cup of sac or sweet sherry. Then you’ll want to whip it to make whipped cream. Once the pastries are done in the oven, take them out and let them cool. Once they are cooled, cut the tops off. Take a bit of the center out of the pastries to make room for the cream. Spoon in the whipped cream. Put the tops back on, and you’re ready to eat 18th Century Cream Puffs! 

OUTRO

Well, this brings us to the end of this episode of the 18th Century Podcast. I hope you found this episode as interesting as I did, and maybe I’ll do a few more episodes like this in the future if you guys want. The script and citations for this episode and all other episodes can be found at 18thcentury.home.blog that’s 1, 8, t h, century dot home dot blog. Type the numbers don’t spell them. If you’d like to support the show, please share it and leave a review. I’ve been your host Cj, and thank you for listening to this episode of the 18th Century Podcast.

CITATIONS

Verylargerabbit. “18th Century Table Setting.” The Edible Eighteenth Century, 5 Nov. 2012, https://engl3164.wordpress.com/2012/11/05/18th-century-table-setting/.

Shamo, Denis V. “Cultural Rules of Dining.” Rules of Dining in 18th Century England, http://umich.edu/~ece/student_projects/food/rules.htm.

Mrs. Glasse. The Art of Cookery Made Plain and Easy. 1st American ed., Cottom & Stewart, 1805. (First published in England in 1747)

Townsends. “‘Macaroni’ – A Recipe From 1784.” YouTube, YouTube, 26 Feb. 2018, https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=hV-yHbbrKRA.

Townsends. “‘Whipt Cream, Like Snow’ – Not Your Typical Whipped Cream.” YouTube, YouTube, 19 Aug. 2019, https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=tpoMQ5hNd1Y.

18th Century Podcast Episode 17 Drinks

1700s alcohol drinking

Listen here: https://anchor.fm/cj123/episodes/18th-Century-Podcast-Episode-17-Drinks-e5kho8/a-aouoh3

Summary

In this episode, we will be discussing different kinds of drinks from the 18th Century. I’ll be going over a few recipes too. Some of the drinks mentioned will be alcoholic, so if you decide to try one of the alcoholic drinks, please drink responsibly and be of legal age.

Script

INTRO

Welcome back to the 18th Century Podcast. I am your host, Cj. In today’s episode, we will be discussing different kinds of drinks from the 18th Century. I’ll be going over a few recipes too. Some of the drinks mentioned will be alcoholic, so if you decide to try one of the alcoholic drinks, please drink responsibly and be of legal age. Some of the drinks mentioned and the recipes provided in this episode I got from the 18th Century Cooking, series on youtube put out by Townsends. I’ll provide links to their videos on the bottom of the script post for this episode. If you’d like to read the script for this episode and its citations, go to 18thcentury.home.blog that’s 1, 8, t h, century dot home dot blog. Type the numbers don’t spell them. Let’s begin this episode by taking a look at a brief overview of 18th Century drinks.

PART 1 18TH CENTURY DRINKS

What may surprise you about the 18th Century is the multitude of available drinks. A wide range of alcoholic and nonalcoholic beverages can be found throughout the Century. Some of the non-alcoholic beverages may surprise you by the multitude of them. Also during the 18th Century regarding alcoholic beverages, we start to see the beginnings of cocktails. I want to start this off by giving a fun fact about water during the 18th Century. Water is perhaps the most basic drink we consume, and today we could get it right from our fridge or bottled. I think it’s clear that they didn’t have fridges back then, but they did have bottled water. If you were in the country and found a clean source of water, you’d probably drink it. But if you lived in a larger city, clean water was hard to come by. They didn’t know about germs at the time, but they could tell if water was clean or not. Water would be bottled from clean sources and sold to those in the city. Mineral water was also being sold during the 18th Century as it was viewed as having healing properties. Let’s continue with our next segment, non-alcoholic drinks.

PART 2 NON-ALCOHOLIC DRINKS 

I believe the most proper way to start discussing non-alcoholic beverages would be to talk about the most famous drink from the 18th Century, tea. Tea was perhaps one of the most popular drinks especially in England and the Colonies. They consumed it as green or black. Though tea was popular, that doesn’t mean it was cheap. Tea could cost up to 10 shillings per pound. Milk was commonly added to the drink. Personally, I have found myself enjoying green tea with a little cream once and a while. I will be devoting a future episode entirely to tea at some point because it’s a larger topic than you’d think. Regarding milk, the better quality milk was found out in the countryside on farms. There were cows brought in to provide milk for the cites, but these cows were typically in poor health due to their diet. People in the 18th Century didn’t typically drink milk by itself, and it was usually added to something instead. We can find the drink, hot chocolate found in the 18th Century, but they prepared somewhat similar to how we would do it. Taking a recipe from Elizabeth Raffald’s, The experienced English house-keeper, quote, “Scrape four ounces of chocolate and pour one quart of boiling water on it, mill it well with a chocolate mill and sweeten it to your taste; give it a boil and let it stand all night, then mill it again very well; boil it two minutes, then mill it, it will leave a froth upon the top of your cups.” unquote. Coffee was also a popular drink. Coffee Houses were popular in England and the Colonies, and the first ones date back to the 17th Century. Coffee Houses acted as a sort of hub for discussion and gossip. Just like today, coffee was a popular breakfast drink. Coffee and Hot Chocolate were typically drunk from cups without handles. Sometimes to cool their coffee, they would pour it into a saucer. Towards the end of the 18th Century, coffee would start to lose its popularity in England. An interesting 1730s summer drink which was supposed to be refreshing was Barley Water. If you’d like to try Barley Water, here’s a simple recipe. First, boil 4 ounces of barley, then add 1-2 quarts of water to cool. Next, you’ll want to add a stick of cinnamon, and 1 or 2 blades of mace. Bring it back up to a boil. After it boils, strain the liquid into a bowl. Let it cool to about room temperature. Add sugar to taste. Add the juice of around 2 lemons. Then you’ll want to bottle the drink and keep it cool. Once it’s cool you can serve and if you wish, garnish with lemon peel. If it’s kept cool the drink should keep for a few days. Now, I’m going to take a short break and when I come back we’ll discuss alcoholic drinks during the 18th Century. I’ll be right back.

PART 3 ALCOHOLIC DRINKS 

Welcome back. We’ll finish up the second half of this episode by discussing alcoholic drinks in the 18th Century. And based off of my research for this episode, they loved to drink. To give proof to this, let me quote a Georgian, quote, “If I take a settler after my coffee, a cooler at nine, a bracer at ten, a whetter at eleven and two or three stiffners during the forenoon, who has any right to complain?” Unquote. Also to further back this up with some numbers, in 1790 the United States found out that those who were 15 and older drank on average “thirty-four gallons of beer and cider, five gallons of distilled spirits, and one gallon of wine,” per capita annually. In the Americas Cider and Beer were the primary choice for a time. Before the American Revolution, rum was the preferred drink over whiskey. But because of patriotism during the American War of Independence attitudes shifted to a drink which was more local to the area, Whiskey. Going back to rum for a second, in the colonies alone by 1770 there were over 140 distilleries. When whiskey came into fashion in the Americas, it was Kentucky Bourbon which got near the top. During George Washington’s later life, he would distill whiskey on his property. I’ve been to the site, and if you ever get a chance to tour Mount Vernon, do so, and make sure to go through the distillery. In the morning John Adams would drink hard cider. Samuel Adams assisted in the running of his father’s brewery. John Hancock was accused of being a wine smuggler leading up to the Revolution. Thomas Jefferson would import French Wine. At one point, Patrick Henery was a bartender, and when he was the Virginia Governor he would serve his own brewed alcohol to his guests. Another prevalent drink during the 18th Century in the Americas and England was Small Beer. Small Beer was a low alcoholic beer which would have been consumed by men, women, and children during the 18th Century. It also went across class as both rich and poor would consume it. It could be found being served with meals, such as breakfast. You might not find the word cocktail in the 18th Century, but they did have mixed drinks. One such drink was called the Rattle-Skull. The Rattle-Skull was made with, “three to four ounces of hard liquor usually an equal split between rum and brandy would be dropped into a pint of strong porter, tarted up with the juice of half a lime and then showered with shaved nutmeg.” Another drink which you might have found at a tavern would have been a Stone Fence. A Stone Fence was made by pouring two ounces of dark rum into a glass, then topping it with hard cider. You might want the cider to be a little sweet too. Perhaps one of the most interesting recipes I found was for a drink called a Whipped Syllabub, which would have also acted as a dessert. To make a Whipped Syllabub, take a glass of wine (your choice) and add a teaspoon of sugar to it, or sugar to taste if you prefer. Stir the sugar in until it dissolves. To make the whipped part, in a bowl pour a cup of white wine, mix in the juice of 2 lemons, and a 1/2 cup of granulated sugar. Stir this until the sugar is dissolved. To the bowl, and one pint of heavy cream. Whip the bowl’s contents into a froth. Once you’ve completed whipping, layer the whip on top of the wine. You can garnish with a little nutmeg if you so desire. You’re going to consume this with a spoon. You can eat each layer one by one, or you can stir the whip with the wine and consume it that way.

OUTRO

Well, this brings us to the end of this episode of the 18th Century Podcast. It was fascinating to learn about the different types of drinks which were consumed during the 18th Century. I hope you found this episode to be as interesting as I did. The script and citations for this episode and all other episodes can be found at 18thcentury.home.blog that’s 1, 8, t h, century dot home dot blog. Type the numbers don’t spell them. If you’d like to support the show, please share it and leave a review. I’ve been your host Cj, and thank you for listening to this episode of the 18th Century Podcast.

CITATIONS

Crews, Ed. “Drinking in Colonial America: Rattle-Skull, Stonewall, Bogus, Blackstrap, Bombo, Mimbo, Whistle Belly, Syllabub, Sling, Toddy, and Flip.” Drinking in Colonial America: Rattle-Skull, Stonewall, Bogus, Blackstrap, Bombo, Mimbo, Whistle Belly, Syllabub, Sling, Toddy, and Flip : The Colonial Williamsburg Official History & Citizenship Site, 2007, https://www.history.org/foundation/journal/holiday07/drink.cfm.

Swindell, Melissa. “What Was in Colonial Cups besides Tea? Cider, Water, Milk, and Whiskey!” National Museum of American History, 29 Sept. 2015, https://americanhistory.si.edu/blog/2012/12/what-was-in-colonial-cups-besides-tea-cider-water-milk-and-whiskey.html.

Geri Walton. “Popular Drinks of the Georgian Era.” Geri Walton, 14 Nov. 2016, https://www.geriwalton.com/popular-drinks-of-georgian-era/.

Murden, Sarah. “A Cup of Tea Anyone, Made the 18th Century Way?” All Things Georgian, 8 June 2019, https://georgianera.wordpress.com/2018/05/31/a-cup-of-tea-anyone-made-the-18th-century-way/.

Murden, Sarah. “18th Century Drinking Chocolate.” All Things Georgian, 28 Apr. 2018, https://georgianera.wordpress.com/2015/01/06/18th-century-drinking-chocolate/.

“History of Bottled Water.” EFBW, https://www.efbw.org/index.php?id=39.

Major, Joanne. “A Brief History of Coffee in the Georgian Era.” All Things Georgian, 8 May 2018, https://georgianera.wordpress.com/2018/04/12/a-brief-history-of-coffee-in-the-georgian-era/.

Townsends. “Barley Water From 1734 – Perfect Drink For This Summer Heat!” YouTube, YouTube, 8 July 2019, https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=zV1FuzftraI.

Townsends. “What Is Small Beer? – Q&A.” YouTube, YouTube, 19 May 2016, https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=dtjN1qWoflk.

Townsends. “Making Easy and Delicious Whipped Syllabubs.” YouTube, YouTube, 4 May 2015, https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=y6NIMNkaGI4.

18th Century Podcast Episode 16 Archduchess Maria Theresa

Archduchess Maria Theresa

Listen here: https://anchor.fm/cj123/episodes/18th-Century-Podcast-Episode-16-Archduchess-Maria-Theresa-e5ffcq/a-ao7vas

Summary

In this episode, we will be taking a look at the life of Archduchess Maria Theresa. She was involved in one of the key conflicts of the 18th Century, The War Of Austrian Succession.

Script

INTRO

Welcome back to the 18th Century Podcast. I am your host, Cj. In today’s episode, we will be taking a look at the life of Archduchess Maria Theresa. She was involved in one of the key conflicts of the 18th Century, The War Of Austrian Succession. If you’d like to read the script for this episode and its citations, go to 18thcentury.home.blog that’s 1, 8, t h, century dot home dot blog. Type the numbers don’t spell them. Let’s begin this episode by taking a look at her early life before she gained the crown.

PART 1 EARLY LIFE

Archduchess Maria Theresa young

Archduchess Maria Theresa was born on May 13th, 1717, in Vienna. She was the eldest daughter of the Holy Roman Emperor, Charles VI of the Habsburg dynasty and Elisabeth Christine of Brunswick-Wolfenbüttel. I have to provide a little context a few years before her birth. Under the law of the time, only male heirs could assume the throne. Charles was concerned he wouldn’t have a male heir. So in 1713, he issued the Pragmatic Sanction, which would allow his eldest daughter to assume the throne if he could not provide a male heir. He would produce a male heir but tragically the heir would die an infant in 1716. When the Pragmatic Sanction was issued most of the Monarchs under Charles accepted it. Maria’s education was typical for that of a noblewoman during the time. However, she was not taught about the matters of Statecraft. In 1736 Maria would marry. The circumstances around her marriage are a bit unusual for the time. Charles VI advisor, Prince Eugene of Savoy, recommended that he should have his daughter married off to someone who held great power. This would be the conventional wisdom of the time. Instead, Charles chose to let his daughter marry someone she loved. Maria had fallen for a French Duke, by the name of Francis Stephen of Lorraine. They would marry in 1736. For the French, this was a problem. If one of their Dukes married into the Hapsburg line, the Hapsburg would have a claim over French territory. To appease the French Monarchy, Duke Francis traded his territory for the province of Tuscany. At this time, Tuscany was considered to be of lesser value. What is truly remarkable is how many children the new royal couple would produce throughout their lives. Maria would give birth to sixteen children, ten of them would survive to adulthood. They had 5 sons and 11 daughters, and one of those daughters was, Marie Antoinette. Then in 1740, Charles VI would die, and the crown would pass to Maria. The War Of Austrian Succession was about to begin.

PART 2 TAKING THE CROWN & THE WAR OF AUSTRIAN SUCCESSION 

Archduchess Maria Theresa and The War Of Austrian Succession

On October 20th, 1740, Charles VI died. At the age of 23, Maria Theresa would ascend the throne, becoming the Empress of the Holy Roman Empire, and Archduchess of Austria. What she inherited was a terrible situation. She had no training in running the government, the treasury was practically empty, their army was weak, and the Capitol was seated with unrest. But to her benefit, the duchies of Austria, Bohemia, Netherlands, and Hungary accepted her as their Empress. One of the first major challenges Maria faced was when Frederick the Great invaded Silesia by December. Then the French and Bavarians invaded her to the West. Her main focus for most of the war would be on the Prussians as they were the greater threat, but she could not ignore being invaded from 2 fronts. France, Bavaria, Saxony, and Spain supported a challenger to Maria’s Thorne, Charles Albert, Elector of Bavaria. Frederick the Great overtook Silesia in April of 1741. Maria’s main supporter in the war was the British. Though she had initial failures, there were some successes to come, even though Frederick would hold onto Silesia. During July of 1742, She drove off the French and Bavarians from Bohemia. She went right into the Bavarian territory. Her allies would defeat the French in 1743 at the Battle of Dettingen, in Bavaria. In September of the same year, Savoy would join Maria’s side along with the British, Hanoverians, and Hessians. The French would withdraw to their borders. Fortune would go more in Maria’s favor in January of 1745, when her Bavarian challenger, Charles Albert died. Albert’s son had little interest in continuing the conflict. He would give his support to Maria’s husband if Bavarian lands were returned. This would be made official in December, the Treaty of Dresden was signed. The Imperial Crown would pass to her husband, as the law prevented women from taking it. Though this wouldn’t be the complete end of the war. Fighting between her other foes continued until 1748. In October of 1748, the Treaty of Aix-la-Chapelle was signed. This treaty granted Prussia the right to keep Silesia. It had Maria cede three territories to the second son of the King of Spain but in exchange for her Netherlands territory which was begin held by France. It wasn’t the best situation for Maria by the end of the war, and it didn’t help that she never got a General up to the job. It wasn’t her proudest moment, but the War was over. Now, we’re going to take a short break, and when we come back, we’ll take a look at Maria’s domestic policy, and her later life. We’ll be right back.

PART 3 DOMESTIC POLICY AND LATER LIFE

Archduchess Maria Theresa old

Welcome back. Maria’s domestic policy was good and bad in some respects. Because of the War, she would increase her army’s size by about 200% and she also increased taxes. She combined the Austrian and Bohemian chancelleries. Maria would also go on to create a Supreme Court to uphold justice within her territory. Maria was also a devote Catholic, and she had a distasteful view of Protestants. In 1741 she kicked Jews out of Prague. She was very conservative in her religious views. Two academies would be established under her rule. The first being the Theresian Military Academy in 1752, and in 1754 she established an academy for engineering and science. She would also increase funding to the University of Vienna for medical research. She spent years fortifying her army and was preparing an attack on Prussia in 1756. What she didn’t expect was for Prussia to attack first. Frederick the Great would invade Saxony and this first move began the Seven Years War. The war would conclude in 1763 when Maria signed a treaty, the Treaty of Hubertusburg, recognizing Prussia’s control over most of Silesia. Tragedy would strike in 1765 when her husband perished. She truly loved her husband and grieved over his death for a prolonged period. Upon his death, she appointed her eldest son, Joseph II, as coregent and as Emperor. They didn’t see eye to eye having conflicting views on running the State. She viewed her son’s youth and inexperience as being rash. Joseph II flirted with enlightenment ideas which were more in accordance with her rival, Frederick the Great. She would have his powers limited for the time being. After the death of her husband, she would implement a new penal code to substitute local laws and make the law more standardized across the State. She wanted to centralize control more than she already had, even from the Church even though she was devout in her belief. The Church would become less involved in Secular matters. She would implement censorship among the populace, and lay the groundwork for compulsory education for primary students. Though she continually disagreed with her son, she did allow him to make reforms in the army. In 1767, the Archduchess became infected with Smallpox. Smallpox had been making the rounds around the royal family in the 1760s. Maria was nearly on death’s door. She was given her last rites, but then, recovered. After her recovery, she became a vapid supporter of inoculation. She would set an example for her subjects by making her children get inoculated. In her later years, she focused more so on reforming the law. For example, in 1771 Joseph II and herself issued the Robot Patent, which created regulation for the pay of serfs. She would also go on to abolish witch-burning, torture, and the death penalty. Though it should be noted that the death penalty was later reinstated. In 1772 she spoke out against the first partition of Poland, viewing it as immoral. In 1774 her plans for compulsory education came into fruition. She had a strict policy around decency. She set up a police force designed to enforce her decency policy. This police force was mainly centered in Vienna, and one class of people they would arrest were prostitutes. These women would be sent off to the small eastern villages. Some writers of the time noted, quote, “exceptionally beautiful women” unquote, lived in these tiny villages. Maria would physically become plumper as she grew older. Her health would waver and in 1780, Archduchess Maria Theresa would meet her end in Vienna. In the 650 year rule of the Hapsburg dynasty, she was the only woman who ruled.

OUTRO

Archduchess Maria Theresa was an interesting historical figure to research. What I learned about her, is not exactly what I expected to find. I hope you enjoyed this episode. The script and citations for this episode and all other episodes can be found at https://18thcentury.home.blog that’s 1, 8, t h, century dot home dot blog. Type the numbers don’t spell them. If you’d like to support the show, please share it and leave a review. I’ve been your host Cj, and thank you for listening to this episode of the 18th Century Podcast.

CITATIONS

“Maria Theresa of Austria.” Maria Theresa of Austria – New World Encyclopedia, 14 Aug. 2018, https://www.newworldencyclopedia.org/entry/Maria_Theresa_of_Austria.

Pick, Robert. “Maria Theresa.” Encyclopædia Britannica, Encyclopædia Britannica, Inc., 14 Aug. 2019, https://www.britannica.com/biography/Maria-Theresa.

“Maria Theresa.” Biography.com, A&E Networks Television, 15 Apr. 2019, https://www.biography.com/activist/maria-theresa.

Britannica, The Editors of Encyclopaedia. “War of the Austrian Succession.” Encyclopædia Britannica, Encyclopædia Britannica, Inc., 9 Dec. 2018, https://www.britannica.com/event/War-of-the-Austrian-Succession.

18th Century Podcast Episode 15 Secret Societies

Listen here: https://anchor.fm/cj123/episodes/18th-Century-Podcast-Episode-15-Secret-Societies-e5c7p4/a-anf5ha

Summary

In today’s episode, we will be taking a look at secret societies.We’re going to start the episode discussing a brief overview of the topic, then a few societies in particular. Among those discussed will be The Freemasons, The Hell Fire Club, and The Illuminati.

Script

INTRO

Welcome back to the 18th Century Podcast. I am your host, Cj. In today’s episode, we will be taking a look at secret societies. Secret Societies are a fascinating topic, and they were somewhat prevalent during the 18th Century. We’re going to start the episode discussing a brief overview of the topic, then a few societies in particular. Among those discussed will be The Freemasons, The Hell Fire Club, and The Illuminati. f you’d like to read the script for this episode and its citations, go to 18thcentury.home.blog that’s 1, 8, t h, century dot home dot blog. Type the numbers don’t spell them. Let’s get into it with, a brief overview of secret societies in the 18th Century.

OVERVIEW OF SECRET SOCIETIES

Perhaps the best way to describe a secret society is to speak of it’s most basic elements. A secret society is a group of people centered around a goal or a group of goals or ideas and espousing them in secrecy. Secret societies could be religious or secular. Ceremony and rituals are often involved, as passed down traditions. A secret society could have certain qualifications for membership, such as being of a particular sex, specific age, social class, your even your job. Traditionally, most secret societies tended to be for adult males. Now let’s look at some examples of secret societies in the 18th Century, beginning with the Freemasons.

PART 1 FREEMASONS

Freemasonry is perhaps one of the most popular secret societies in the world. The roots of Freemasonry go back further than that of the 18th Century. Most likely, Freemasonry started as a guild or guilds in the Middle Ages. Yet as time went on, the formed into the group known as the Freemasons. One no longer had to be an actual mason to join. Semblance of Freemasonry slowly came into being during the 17th Century. There were signs of Lodges in the 17th Century as well. I would like to note, that at this point, it was more focused in England. Jumping into the 18th Century, the more modern structure began to take shape. On June 24th, 1717, the first Grand Lodge was established. This Grand Lodge was comprised of four separate Lodges in London coming together. This would be the first Grand Lodge in the entire world. In 1723 the new Grand Lodge published their first rule book. Then in 1725, the Grand Lodge of Ireland was established. The French Grand Lodge opened its doors in 1728. On July 30th, 1733 the first Grand Lodge in America was established. 18 men gathered together in a Tavern in Boston to establish the new Grand Lodge. Which, was also the first Lodge in America. In 1736 the Scottish Grand Lodge was established. Around the 1730s through the 1740s in France, there was an idea of having a mixed-sex form of Freemasonry. This could be referred to as, Rite of Adoption. It wasn’t popular with everyone, but rules for it were eventually adopted in France. One of the key points of Freemasonry is Brotherhood. Some general requirements for joining were being a freeborn Male who believes in some sort of Supreme Being, of good character, and particular minimum age. The term, “Lodge” refers to the meeting of Masons. However, the word “Lodge” can be interpreted as where they meet as well. Grand Lodges issues charters or warrants for the formation of new Lodges. If they do not obtain a charter or warrant they are viewed as irregular and not officially recognized. If they are recognized, they are viewed as regular. This practice of viewing a lodge as regular or irregular is also at the Grand Lodge level as well for the simple fact of mutual recognition. The acts conducted within Freemasonry during the 18th Century were secretive, so I can’t discuss much what they did. I think this is a good spot to move on to the Hellfire Club.

PART 2 HELLFIRE CLUB

You may have heard of the Hellfire Club, if only for the simple fact of Ben Franklin possibly may have attended. There were a few Hellfire Clubs sprinkled throughout Ireland and England. However, the first Hellfire Club was started in England in 1719 by the First Duke of Wharton. There wasn’t a ton of organizational structure in Hellfire Clubs. The main point of these clubs was in fact, Hedonism. Drunkenness and other debaucherous activities were prevalent. The most famous Hellfire Club was started by Sir Francis Dashwood. However, he would add his branding to the Club dubbing it, the Order of the Knights of St Francis. His Club was founded sometime in the 1730s. About six miles from his home in, West Wycombe, Sir Dashwood would set up shop in an old abandoned Abbey. They would meet usually twice a year. Members could expect good food, much drinking, and to quote from a book from 1779 called, Nocturnal Revels, which was a record of the meetings, quote “cheerful ladies of lively dispositions.” Unquote. In the mid-1760s, Sir Dashwood would change the venue. Eventually, the Club would come to a close. Now, were going to take a short break, and when we come back we’ll finish the episode off by talking about, the Illuminati.

PART 3 THE ILLUMINATI

Welcome back. We’ll finish off this week’s episode by discussing one of the most famous secret societies in history, The Illuminati. The real Illuminati was started by a Bavarian man named, Adam Weishaupt. Adam was born in 1748 and attended a Jesuit School in his youth. Adam would go on to become a professor of Natural and Canon Law. He would get married and start a family. He grew up in a Catholic society but read his uncles French Enlightenment books during his youth. His political views tended towards the idea that Monarchy and the Church were repressive organizations. For a time he considered joining the Freemasons but some of his views contrasted with that of the Masons. He decided to form his own society and one of their core beliefs was the abolishment of Monarchy. On May 1st, 1776, the 28-year-old Adam conducted the very first Illuminati meeting. There was a total attendance of five members. They established the rules of their new society that night. Illumination was the main goal of the Illuminati which, to put it another way, was to bring knowledge of true liberty to the people. He added mysticism to their society to make the republican group seem more mysterious. In 1780, Adam attracted the attention of Adolf Francis, a Baron, and an Occultist. The Baron seemed to approve of the Illuminati’s goals and he helped establish chapters across Germany. By 1782 their numbers swelled to around 600 men. The Illuminati attracted doctors, lawyers, politicians, intellectuals and the like. During 1784 their membership would hit about 3000 men. There were 13 degrees a member could attain, and this structure was in part modeled after the Masons. Yet they would meet their downfall between 1784 to 1785. A disillusioned member wrote to the Grand Duchess of Bavaria informing her of the secret societies. The letter was a mixture of truth and falsehoods. The Grand Duchess informed her husband, the Duke-Elector, about this and he would issue an edict effectively banning the formation of societies not prescribed by law. Then in 1785 another edict was passed specifically banning the Illuminati. Police were sent out to arrest members and confiscate anything to do with the Illuminati. In 1787 the Duke-Elector would pass a final edict which officially prohibited the Illuminati and made being a member worthy of a death sentence. Adam was banished and he would spend the rest of his days as a teacher of philosophy at a University in Saxony. Thus, this brings us to the end of the Illuminati.

OUTRO

Secret Societies are an interesting topic. Some of them still exist to this day, such as The Freemasons. I found this as an interesting topic to research and I hope you enjoyed hearing about it as much as I did reading about it. The script and citations for this episode and all other episodes can be found at https://18thcentury.home.blog that’s 1, 8, t h, century dot home dot blog. Type the numbers don’t spell them. If you’d like to support the show, please share it and leave a review. I’ve been your host Cj, and thank you for listening to this episode of the 18th Century Podcast.

CITATIONS

Secret Societies.” Encyclopedia of Religion. . Encyclopedia.com. 3 Sep. 2019 <https://www.encyclopedia.com>.

Britannica, The Editors of Encyclopaedia. “Freemasonry.” Encyclopædia Britannica, Encyclopædia Britannica, Inc., 30 Aug. 2019, https://www.britannica.com/topic/order-of-Freemasons.

Freemasonry and Brotherhood, http://www.msana.com/brotherhood.asp.

“History of Freemasonry.” United Grand Lodge of England – History of Freemasonry, https://www.ugle.org.uk/about-freemasonry/history-of-freemasonry.

“Boston Masons Organize First Grand Lodge in America.” John Brown Speaks in Concord, https://www.massmoments.org/moment-details/boston-masons-organize-first-grand-lodge-in-america.html.

Walton, Geri. “Freemasonry and the ‘Masonry of Adoption’ in 18th Century France.” Geri Walton, 23 Apr. 2019, https://www.geriwalton.com/freemasonry-and-the-masonry-of-adoption-in-18th-century-france/.

“Freemasonry.” New World Encyclopedia, . 11 May 2017, 14:33 UTC. 12 Sep 2019, 20:26 <//www.newworldencyclopedia.org/p/index.php?title=Freemasonry&oldid=1004729>.

“Who Were the Hellfire Club?: The Hellfire Club Archaeological Project.” Abarta Heritage Home, 29 June 2018, https://www.abartaheritage.ie/hellfire-club-archaeological-project/hellfire-club-history/hellfire-club/.&nbsp;

“Hellfire Club History: The Beginnings of the Infamous Secret Society.” Historic Mysteries, 7 Jan. 2017, https://www.historicmysteries.com/hellfire-club/.

The Illuminati.” Gale Encyclopedia of the Unusual and Unexplained. . Encyclopedia.com. 13 Sep. 2019 <https://www.encyclopedia.com>.

Fotostock, Maria Breuer/ImageBroker/Age, and Karger-Decker/Age Fotostock. “Meet the Man Who Started the Illuminati.” National Geographic, 3 Sept. 2019, https://www.nationalgeographic.com/archaeology-and-history/magazine/2016/07-08/profile-adam-weishaupt-illuminati-secret-society/.

18th Century Podcast Episode 14 WASHINGTON’S INAUGURAL ADDRESS 1789

Listen here: https://anchor.fm/cj123/episodes/18th-Century-Podcast-Episode-14-WASHINGTONS-INAUGURAL-ADDRESS-1789-e55qa0/a-am21j9

Summary

In this episode I read George Washington’s first Inaugural Address from April 30, 1789. 

Script

WASHINGTON’S INAUGURAL ADDRESS

Fellow Citizens of the Senate and the House of Representatives.Among the vicissitudes incident to life, no event could have filled me with greater anxieties than that of which the notification was transmitted by your order, and received on the fourteenth day of the present month. On the one hand, I was summoned by my Country, whose voice I can never hear but with veneration and love, from a retreat which I had chosen with the fondest predilection, and, in my flattering hopes, with an immutable decision, as the asylum of my declining years: a retreat which was rendered every day more necessary as well as more dear to me, by the addition of habit to inclination, and of frequent interruptions in my health to the gradual waste committed on it by time. On the other hand, the magnitude and difficulty of the trust to which the voice of my Country called me, being sufficient to awaken in the wisest and most experienced of her citizens, a distrustful scrutiny into his qualifications, could not but overwhelm with dispondence, one, who, inheriting inferior endowments from nature and unpractised in the duties of civil administration, ought to be peculiarly conscious of his own deficiencies. In this conflict of emotions, all I dare aver, is, that it has been my faithful study to collect my duty from a just appreciation of eve ry circumstance, by which it might be affected. All I dare hope, is, that, if in executing this task I have been too much swayed by a grateful remembrance of former instances, or by an affectionate sensibility to this transcendent proof, of the confidence of my fellow-citizens; and have thence too little consulted my incapacity as well as disinclination for the weighty and untried cares before me; my error will be palliated by the motives which misled me, and its consequences be judged by my Country, with some share of the partiality in which they originated.Such being the impressions under which I have, in obedience to the public summons, repaired to the present station; it would be peculiarly improper to omit in this first official Act, my fervent supplications to that Almighty Being who rules over the Universe, who presides in the Councils of Nations, and whose providential aids can supply every human defect, that his benediction may consecrate to the liberties and happiness of the People of the United States, a Government instituted by themselves for these essential purposes: and may enable every instrument employed in its administration to execute with success, the functions allotted to his charge. In tendering this homage to the Great Author of every public and private good I assure myself that it expresses your sentiments not less than my own; nor those of my fellow-citizens at large, less than either. No People can be bound to acknowledge and adore the invisible hand, which conducts the Affairs of men more than the People of the United States. Every step, by which they have advanced to the character of an independent nation, seems to have been distinguished by some token of providential agency. And in the important revolution just accomplished in the system of their United Government, the tranquil deliberations and voluntary consent of so many distinct communities, from which the event has resulted, cannot be compared with the means by which most Governments have been established, without some return of pious gratitude along with an humble anticipation of the future blessings which the past seem to presage. These reflections, arising out of the present crisis, have forced themselves too strongly on my mind to be suppressed. You will join with me I trust in thinking, that there are none under the influence of which, the proceedings of a new and free Government can more auspiciously commence.By the article establishing the Executive Department, it is made the duty of the President “to recommend to your consideration, such measures as he shall judge necessary and expedient.” The circumstances under which I now meet you, will acquit me from entering into that subject, farther than to refer to the Great Constitutional Charter under which you are assembled; and which, in defining your powers, designates the objects to which your attention is to be given. It will be more consistent with those circumstances, and far more congenial with the feelings which actuate me, to substitute, in place of a recommendation of particular measures, the tribute that is due to the talents, the rectitude, and the patriotism which adorn the characters selected to devise and adopt them. In these honorable qualifications, I behold the surest pledges, that as on one side, no local prejudices, or attachments; no seperate views, nor party animosities, will misdirect the comprehensive and equal eye which ought to watch over this great assemblage of communities and interests: so, on another, that the foundations of our National policy will be laid in the pure and immutable principles of private morality; and the pre-eminence of a free Government, be exemplified by all the attributes which can win the affections of its Citizens, and command the respect of the world.I dwell on this prospect with every satisfaction which an ardent love for my Country can inspire: since there is no truth more thoroughly established, than that there exists in the economy and course of nature, an indissoluble union between virtue and happiness, between duty and advantage, between the genuine maxims of an honest and magnanimous policy, and the solid rewards of public prosperity and felicity: Since we ought to be no less persuaded that the propitious smiles of Heaven, can never be expected on a nation that disregards the eternal rules of order and right, which Heaven itself has ordained: And since the preservation of the sacred fire of liberty, and the destiny of the Republican model of Government, are justly considered as deeply, perhaps as finally staked, on the experiment entrusted to the hands of the American people.Besides the ordinary objects submitted to your care, it will remain with your judgment to decide, how far an exercise of the occasional power delegated by the Fifth article of the Constitution is rendered expedient at the present juncture by the nature of objections which have been urged against the System, or by the degree of inquietude which has given birth to them. Instead of undertaking particular recommendations on this subject, in which I could be guided by no lights derived from official opportunities, I shall again give way to my entire confidence in your discernment and pursuit of the public good: For I assure myself that whilst you carefully avoid every alteration which might endanger the benefits of an United and effective Government, or which ought to await the future lessons of experience; a reverence for the characteristic rights of freemen, and a regard for the public harmony, will sufficiently influence your deliberations on the question how far the former can be more impregnably fortified, or the latter be safely and advantageously promoted.To the preceeding observations I have one to add, which will be most properly addressed to the House of Representatives. It concerns myself, and will therefore be as brief as possible. When I was first honoured with a call into the Service of my Country, then on the eve of an arduous struggle for its liberties, the light in which I contemplated my duty required that I should renounce every pecuniary compensation. From this resolution I have in no instance departed. And being still under the impressions which produced it, I must decline as inapplicable to myself, any share in the personal emoluments, which may be indispensably included in a permanent provision for the Executive Department; and must accordingly pray that the pecuniary estimates for the Station in which I am placed, may, during my continuance in it, be limited to such actual expenditures as the public good may be thought to require.Having thus imparted to you my sentiments, as they have been awakened by the occasion which brings us together, I shall take my present leave; but not without resorting once more to the benign parent of the human race, in humble supplication that since he has been pleased to favour the American people, with opportunities for deliberating in perfect tranquility, and dispositions for deciding with unparellelled unanimity on a form of Government, for the security of their Union, and the advancement of their happiness; so his divine blessing may be equally conspicuousin the enlarged views, the temperate consultations, and the wise measures on which the success of this Government must depend.

Citations

“WASHINGTON’S INAUGURAL ADDRESS OF 1789 A Transcription.” National Archives and Records Administration, National Archives and Records Administration, https://www.archives.gov/exhibits/american_originals/inaugtxt.html.

18th Century Podcast Episode 13 Dueling

18th Century sword duel

Listen here: https://anchor.fm/cj123/episodes/18th-Century-Podcast-Episode-13-Dueling-e516uh/a-al876d

Summary

In this episode of the 18th Century Podcast we’ll take a look at dueling. First I’ll read the Code Duello, which was practically the instruction manual for duels, then we’ll take a look at a brief history of duels, then I’ll tell you a little story of a duel which may have happened in 1792 called, The Petticoat Duel.

Script


INTRO

Welcome back to the 18th Century Podcast. I am your host, Cj. In today’s episode, we’ll take a look at Dueling. We’ll kick things off by reading the Code Duello. Afterward, we’ll continue by covering some of the histories of duels and their importance to society in the 18th Century. If you’d like to read the script for this episode and its citations, go to 18thcentury.home.blog that’s 1, 8, t h, century dot home dot blog. Type the numbers don’t spell them. Let’s get into it with, the Code Duello.

PART 1 CODE DUELLO

I. The first offence requires the first apology, though the retort may have been more offensive than the insult. Example: A tells B he is impertinent, etc. B retorts that he lies; yet A must make the first apology, because he gave the first offence, and (after one fire) B may explain away the retort by subsequent apology.

II. But if the parties would rather fight on, then, after two shots each (but in no case before), B may explain first and A apologize afterwards.

N.B. The above rules apply to all cases of offences in retort not of a stronger class than the example.

III. If a doubt exists who gave the first offence, the decision rests with the seconds. If they will not decide or cannot agree, the matter must proceed to two shots, or to a hit if the challenger requires it.

IV. When the lie direct is the first offence, the aggressor must either beg pardon in express terms, exchange two shots previous to apology, or three shots followed by explanation, or fire on till a severe hit be received by one party or the other.

V. As a blow is strictly prohibited under any circumstances among gentlemen, no verbal apology can be received for such an insult. The alternatives, therefore, are: The offender handing a cane to the injured party to be used on his back, at the same time begging pardon, firing until one or both are disabled; or exchanging three shots and then begging pardon without the proffer of the cane.

N.B. If swords are used, the parties engage until one is well blooded, disabled, or disarmed, or until, after receiving a wound and blood being drawn, the aggressor begs pardon.

VI. If A gives B the lie and B retorts by a blow (being the two greatest offences), no reconciliation can take place till after two discharges each or a severe hit, after which B may beg A’s pardon for the blow, and then A may explain simply for the lie, because a blow is never allowable, and the offence of the lie, therefore, merges in it. (See preceding rule.)

N.B. Challenges for undivulged causes may be conciliated on the ground after one shot. An explanation or the slightest hit should be sufficient in such cases, because no personal offence transpired.

VII. But no apology can be received in any case after the parties have actually taken their ground without exchange of shots.

VIII. In the above case no challenger is obliged to divulge his cause of challenge (if private) unless required by the challenged so to do before their meeting.

IX. All imputations of cheating at play, races, etc., to be considered equivalent to a blow, but may be reconciled after one shot, on admitting their falsehood and begging pardon publicly.

X. Any insult to a lady under a gentleman’s care or protection to be considered as by one degree a greater offence than if given to the gentleman personally, and to be regarded accordingly.

XI. Offences originating or accruing from the support of ladies’ reputations to be considered as less unjustifiable than any others of the same class, and as admitting of slighter apologies by the aggressor. This is to be determined by the circumstances of the case, but always favourably to the lady.

XII. No dumb firing or firing in the air is admissible in any case. The challenger ought not to have challenged without receiving offence, and the challenged ought, if he gave offence, to have made an apology before he came on the ground; therefore children’s play must be dishonourable on one side or the other, and is accordingly prohibited.

XIII. Seconds to be of equal rank in society with the principals they attend, inasmuch as a second may either choose or chance to become a principal and equality is indispensable.

XIV. Challenges are never to be delivered at night, unless the party to be challenged intends leaving the place of offence before morning; for it is desirable to avoid all hot- headed proceedings.

XV. The challenged has the right to choose his own weapons unless the challenger gives his honour he is no swordsman, after which, however, he cannot decline any second species of weapon proposed by the challenged.

XVI. The challenged chooses his ground, the challenger chooses his distance, the seconds fix the time and terms of firing.

XVII. The seconds load in presence of each other, unless they give their mutual honours that they have charged smooth and single, which shall be held sufficient.

XVIII. Firing may be regulated, first, by signal; secondly by word of command; or, thirdly at pleasure, as may be agreeable to the parties. In the latter case, the parties may fire at their reasonable leisure, but second presents and rests are strictly prohibited.

XIX. In all cases a misfire is equivalent to a shot, and a snap or a non-cock is to be considered a misfire.

XX. Seconds are bound to attempt a reconciliation before the meeting takes place or after sufficient firing or hits as specified.

XXI. Any wound sufficient to agitate the nerves and necessarily make the hand shake must end the business for that day.

XXII. If the cause of meeting be of such a nature that no apology or explanation can or will be received, the challenged takes his ground and calls on the challenger to proceed as he chooses. In such cases firing at pleasure is the usual practice, but may be varied by agreement.

XXIII. In slight cases the second hands his principal but one pistol, but in gross cases two, holding another case ready charged in reserve.

XXIV. When the second disagree and resolve to exchange shots themselves, it must be at the same time and at right angles with their principals. If with swords, side by side, with five paces’ interval.

XXV. No party can be allowed to bend his knee or cover his side with his left hand, but may present at any level from the hip to the eye.

XXVI. None can either advance or retreat if the ground is measured. If no ground be measured, either party may advance at his pleasure, even to the touch of muzzles, but neither can advance on his adversary after the fire, unless the adversary steps forward on him.

N.B. The seconds on both sides stand responsible for this last rule being strictly observed, bad cases having occurred from neglecting it.

N.B. All matters and doubts not herein mentioned will be explained and cleared up by application to the Committee, who meet alternately at Clonmel and Galway at the quarter sessions for that purpose.”

PART 2 HISTORY

Well continue with a brief history of dueling, and I’ll explain what I previously read for better context. The act of dueling goes back centuries and it’s difficult to pinpoint the exact location where duels began, but it is easier to trace down the origin of the word, duel. The word duel most likely derives from the Latin word, duellum, which means, war between two. This art of single combat wasn’t strictly speaking, regulated until the sixth century when the King of Burgundy incorporated trial by combat. Trial by combat was a legal duel to decide the innocence or guilt of a person through a duel. Yet private duels between two people would come to be illegal, even though trial by combat would persist for a time. Duels would become more pronounced through the upper rings of society during the Italian Renaissance, and we would see it spread through the military ranks as well. Codes of conducting duels would spring up and treatises would be written on the topic. The core idea of a duel was to preserve one’s honor. The rules of conduct would change over the centuries, but the core idea remained the same. These honor duels would spread out of Italy and into France, and the rest of Europe. Dueling in the 18th Century was officially illegal, but it didn’t stop participants. In 1777, the Irish Code Duello was written, which codified the tradition of the 18th Century. The idea of honor was staked to the idea of being a Gentleman in the 18th Century, and if you haven’t listened to the episode on being a Gentleman in the18th Century yet, I recommend that you go back and listen to it. If your honor was offended, you must seek satisfaction, or face social consequences. Regarding the weaponry used in duels, swords were the most common for the majority of dueling history. However, once the 18th Century rolled around, and due to the prevalence of firearms, pistols slowly overtook the sword. Eventually, pistols were specifically developed for dueling, and they would get the original name of, Dueling Pistols. Dueling would find a home in the Americas in the 17th Century. This tradition would cross the waters too, but it would find it’s home more in the Southern colonies rather than the Northern due to a stronger sense of honor culture in the South, which continued into the 19th Century. Even though duels were prevalent, the fatality rate was lower than one would expect, being around 20%. Now, we’re going to take a short break, and when we come back, I’ll tell you a little tale of a duel.

PART 3 THE PETTICOAT DUEL

Welcome back. I want to wrap things up with this episode telling you a story about a duel, but not just any duel, The Petticoat Duel. I would like to note that this duel is probably fictitious, but the jury is still out on this one, no matter as it’s still an interesting story which originated close to the period. The Petticoat Duel began in 1792, England. It all began by an exchange between two ladies, Mrs. Elphinstone, and Lady Braddock. They were having a conversation over tea, and as time went on, and Mrs. Elphinstone made a comment over Lady Braddock’s age. Mrs. Elphinstone claimed that Lady Braddock was forty years old, and Lady Braddock asserted she wasn’t even thirty yet. Over such a great offense, Lady Braddock challenged Mrs. Elphinstone to a duel, they were set to meet in Hyde Park. The duel would begin with pistols between the two women. Lady Braddock would prove to be a poor shot, but Mrs. Elphinstone had fate on her side, shooting a hole through Lady Braddock’s hat. Each of their seconds begged them to end the duel, and that Mrs. Elphinstone issue an apology, which, she didn’t. Lady Braddock still demanded satisfaction over the age comment. The duel progressed to swords. They slashed at each other, and metal clashed. At some point, Lady Braddock landed a blow on Mrs. Elphinstone’s sword arm, and the duel was complete. Lady Braddock had received satisfaction, and the two women left the field. This story originally ran in a magazine called the Carlton House Magazine, in 1792.

OUTRO

I hope this episode brought you some insight into the world of dueling during the 18th Century. It wasn’t a pretty thing, but honor culture was highly prevalent during the time. Even if The Petticoat Duel never occurred, it’s a perfect example of how a duel could be instigated over the smallest of things, and it’s a great representation of the period. The script and citations for this episode and all other episodes can be found at https://18thcentury.home.blog that’s 1, 8, t h, century dot home dot blog. Type the numbers don’t spell them. If you’d like to support the show, please share it and leave a review. I’ve been your host Cj, and thank you for listening to this episode of the 18th Century Podcast.

CITATIONS

Irish Code Duello, or The Twenty-Six Commandments. 7 Feb. 2007, http://www.sos.mo.gov/CMSImages/MDH/CodeDuello.pdf.

Krystal, Arthur. “En Garde!” The New Yorker, The New Yorker, 18 June 2017, http://www.newyorker.com/magazine/2007/03/12/en-garde.

Chris. “Dueling History: An Affair of Honor.” The Art of Manliness, 3 Nov. 2018, http://www.artofmanliness.com/articles/man-knowledge-an-affair-of-honor-the-duel/.

Major, Joanne. “The ‘Petticoat Duellists’ of 1792.” All Things Georgian, 7 Nov. 2018, georgianera.wordpress.com/2014/08/05/the-petticoat-duellists-of-1792/.

18th Century Podcast Episode 12 Mary Wollstonecraft

Mary Wollstonecraft Picture

Listen here: https://anchor.fm/cj123/episodes/18th-Century-Podcast-Episode-12-Mary-Wollstonecraft-e505ds/a-al2a91

Summary

In this episode of the 18th Century Podcast we’ll take a look at the life of Mary Wollstonecraft. Though she was not as famous as her daughter, Mary Shelley, the author of Frankenstein. This episode will act as a brief bio for her life and struggles, through failed relationships, traveling to France during the Revolution, and the loss of those closest to her. She was not as towering as other figures of the time, but she still was important.

Script

INTRO

Welcome back to the 18th Century Podcast. I am your host, Cj. In today’s episode, we will be taking a look at the life of Mary Wollstonecraft. You may be wondering who Mary Wollstonecraft was, and I don’t blame you. She wasn’t a towering figure like Frederick the Great, but she was the mother of Mary Shelley, the author of, Frankenstein. If you’d like to read the script for this episode and its citations, go to 18thcentury.home.blog that’s 1, 8, t h, century dot home dot blog. Type the numbers don’t spell them.

PART 1 EARLY LIFE

Mary Wollstonecraft was born on April 27th, 1759, in London. She would be the second child out of seven total. Her father, Edward John, received a sizable inherence from his father, but he handled the funds poorly. Edward desired to become a Gentleman Farmer, yet as time marched on life would be marked with failure. The family would move to Epping, so he could pursue his goal. Edward had a violent streak about him too and was reportedly abusive. During her youth, Mary was envious of her older brother, Edward or Ned. He was her mother’s favorite, and the only child out of seven to receive a formal education. Ned also received a portion of the inheritance, left to him by their Grandfather. He would go on to become a lawyer. Mary would gain her ability to read from a friendship she made in her youth with a retired clergyman and his wife. She would familiarize herself with The Bible and works from ancient philosophers. She also showed an interest in the works of Milton and Shakespeare. During the 18th Century, there were few occupations for women of Mary’s standing. So, in 1778 she became a Lady’s Companion to a Mrs. Dawson, who resided in Bath. She was only 19 at the time. She would accompany Mrs. Dawson across England and attend to her. Mary wasn’t content working for Mrs. Dawson, but she did have the comfort of her closest friend, Fanny Blood. Her mother fell ill, and Mary returned home during 1781 to nurse her. It would be for not, her mother would perish during the Spring of 1782. After the death of her mother, Mary’s father would remarry and move to Wales. Her sister, Eliza, also married. Mary moved in with the Blood family, though impoverished, they took her in. To help offset the cost of an extra person in their household, Mary did needlework to assist with bringing in an income. Within months of Eliza married, she became pregnant. Eliza’s husband, Meredith Bishop, wrote to Mary in 1783, asking for assistance with the baby and Eliza’s deteriorating condition, which was mostly mentally. Mary would move out of the Blood’s house, and go and attend to her sister in the winter of 1783. Once she moved in, she presumed Eliza’s mental condition was due to the treatment of her husband. Eliza and Mary left the Bishop home in January of 1784. Under the law at the time, Eliza had to leave her newborn with her husband. The baby would die that August. Marry helped her sister get a legal separation. In February of the same year, Mary would meet up with her friend Fanny, and the two of them, along with Eliza and shortly after, Everina, another one of Mary’s sisters, joined them. The four women began to plan on opening a school. They would open their school in, Newington Green. During her stay in Newington Green, Mary befriended Reverend Richard Price, who would introduce her to liberal intellectuals of the time. Fanny soon decided to marry, and shortly after, became pregnant. Fanny and her husband decided to have their baby in Lisbon, Portugal. She invited Mary to accompany her, and the three of them set off in November of 1785. On the voyage to Lisbon, Mary met a man suffering from consumption. She attended to him while they crossed the waters. She would write about this experience in her novel, Mary, a Fiction. While in Portugal, Mary came to detest Portugeges culture, viewing it as superstitious. Fanny ended up giving birth prematurely, and both the baby and herself died shortly after. Mary would return to England, and it’s safe to say that she was devastated by the passing of her friend. The school which she helped establish was in financial ruin. She ended up publishing, Thoughts on the Education of Daughters, in 1787. Mary would be publishing through a man named, Joseph Johnson. The advance she received would support her for a time, but she needed new work. She became a governess for an Irish family, the Kingsborough family. She was charged with watching over the children. During her time with the Kingsborough’s, she was very unhappy and was still grieving the loss of Fanny. She would travel across England and Irland with the family. However, Mary did not see eye to eye with Lady Kingsborough. Mary would view Lady Kingsborough as everything wrong with women of the time. Mary thought that Lady Kingsborough was weak, and it contrasted against Mary’s view of a strong woman. She ended up being fired by Lady Kingsborough. Mary returned to London during 1787 and gained employment with her old publisher, Joseph Johnson. She worked translating and advising Johnson in his business. She would also continue her writing during this time. In 1788, Johnson would start his, Analytical Review, which Mary would become a contributor. In 1791, Mary would attend a dinner hosted by Johnson in honor of Thomas Paine, regarding his most recent work, The Rights of Men, which was in defense of the French Revolution. At the dinner, many intellectuals would gather, among them was William Godwin. This would mark the initial meeting between Mary and William, and things did not start on the right foot. It was purported by Johnson that they argued over dinner, which overtook the conversation. In September of 1791, Mary would begin writing arguably her most popular work, A Vindication of the Rights of Woman. She had an interest in the events occurring in France, and in February of 1792, she would meet, Charles Talleyrand, a French diplomat. Wanting to see the Revolution for herself, Mary would set off for Paris in December. Now, I’m aware that I’m pausing at an exciting part of this bio, but a short break needs to be taken. When we return, we’ll take a look at Mary in revolutionary France, and the final years of her life. Don’t go away, I’ll be right back.

PART 2 FRANCE AND FINAL YEARS

Welcome back. We’ll continue the second half of this episode by going over Mary’s time spent in France and the final years of her life. When Mary got to France, she met and ended up residing with an American, Captain Gilbert Imlay. They lived in a suburb of Paris. Unfortunately for Mary, at the time she reached Paris, it was the beginning of what would be known as the Jacobin Terror. French sentiments began to grow more and more antagonistic towards the British. You could say this was shocking because it’s not like the British and the French have a Century’s long history of hating each other. After a few months away from the main conflict in Paris, Imlay and Mary headed back to the city. They grew closer together, during their time away. When they did return, they went to the American Embassy, and Mary claimed to be Imlay’s wife. Though the two of them never married, there was more security in France being an American rather than a Brit. Mary became pregnant with his child. Yet the happy couple wasn’t as happy as we’d like to think. Imlay grew disloyal towards Mary. She would give birth in Le Havre, during 1794, and name their daughter after her deceased friend, Fanny. After birth, Imlay went to Paris, and Mary followed with their child. Imlay would abandon Mary and Fanny, heading for London. During her time in France, she watched as her allies were sent to the guillotine. Thomas Paine was imprisoned. Everything was getting worse. Mary and her baby would soon return to London. She would find Imlay and attempt suicide. He stopped her. It’s safe to say their relationship was rocky. Though after a few months, Imlay would send Mary on a business trip to Scandinavia. She was granted what was essentially power of attorney and representation for Imlay’s interests. She would take her daughter and her daughter’s nurse with her on this trip. After her business was concluded in Scandinavia, they returned to London. Mary would find Imlay living with an actress, further proving his disloyalty to her. Again, Mary would attempt suicide, but it was prevented. She would break off her relationship with Imlay. Then in April of 1796, she did something unexpected for the period. She called upon her old dinner acquaintance, William Godwin. He had read her most recent work, Letters from Sweden, and gained a new perspective, more positive perspective of her. They soon began talking and discovered their common interests in nature, other cultures, etc.. Over the next few months, their friendship grew into something stronger, and by August, they had become lovers. By March of 1797, Mary had become pregnant. They talked of marriage, which was a problem because the two of them both publically spoke out against marriage as a legal institution which neglected love. But they indulged in hypocrisy and married on March 29th, 1797. A few months later, Mary would give birth of August 30th to their new daughter, Mary Wollstonecraft Godwin, who would become, Mary Shelley. This was a short-lived happy occasion, as Mary soon would meet her end. Mary Wollstonecraft left of the world on September 10th, 1797 due to blood poisoning from childbirth. Mary Wollstonecraft was only 38 years old when she died.

OUTRO

Mary Wollstonecraft had a difficult life. Yet she would usher in a child who would become one of the most important fiction writers in history. Mary’s accomplishments should not be overlooked. She was a woman who deserves to be remembered. The script and citations for this episode and all other episodes can be found at https://18thcentury.home.blog that’s 1, 8, t h, century dot home dot blog. Type the numbers don’t spell them. If you’d like to support the show, please share it and leave a review. I’ve been your host Cj, and thank you for listening to this episode of the 18th Century Podcast.

CITATIONS

Tomaselli, Sylvana, “Mary Wollstonecraft”, The Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy (Fall 2018 Edition), Edward N. Zalta (ed.), URL = <https://plato.stanford.edu/archives/fall2018/entries/wollstonecraft/.

Britannica, The Editors of Encyclopaedia. “Mary Wollstonecraft.” Encyclopædia Britannica, Encyclopædia Britannica, Inc., 23 Apr. 2019, http://www.britannica.com/biography/Mary-Wollstonecraft.

Biography.com Editors. “Mary Wollstonecraft.” Biography.com, A&E Networks Television, 26 June 2019, http://www.biography.com/scholar/mary-wollstonecraft.

Todd, Professor Janet. “History – British History in Depth: Mary Wollstonecraft: A ‘Speculative and Dissenting Spirit’.” BBC, BBC, 17 Feb. 2011, http://www.bbc.co.uk/history/british/empire_seapower/wollstonecraft_01.shtml.

Lewis, Jone Johnson. “Where Did Mary Wollstonecraft Get Her Ideas?” ThoughtCo, ThoughtCo, 2 June 2019, http://www.thoughtco.com/mary-wollstonecraft-early-years-3530791.