18th Century Podcast: Episode 28 Some Books

Listen here: https://anchor.fm/cj123/episodes/18th-Century-Podcast-Episode-28-Some-Books-eahs9p/a-a1cq029

Summary

In this episode of The 18th Century Podcast, I discuss some of the books I own that are related to the 18th Century. This is an Unscripted episode.

Transcript

Coming at some point…

List of books

  • George Washington’s Secret Six: The Spy Ring That Saved The American Revolution, By: Brian Kilmeade and Don Yeager
  • First Entrepreneur: How George Washington Built His–and the Nation’s–Prosperity, By: Edward G. Lengel
  • Two Treatises of Government and A Letter Concerning Toleration, By: John Locke, Editor: Ian Shapiro, Contributors: John Dunn, Ruth W. Grant, Ian Shapiro
  • A New Manual, And Platoon Exercise: With An Explanation. By: Adjutant General Edward Harvey
  • The First American Cookbook, A Facsimile of “American Cookery,” 1796, By: Amelia Simmons
  • The Art Of Cookery Made Plain And Easy, By: Mrs. Glasse, Intorduction and with modern Improvements by: Karen Hess
  • The Autobiography of Thomas Jefferson, 1743-1790, By: Thomas Jefferson, Editor: Paul Leicester Ford, Introduction by: Michael Zuckerman
  • The Jefferson Bible, Arranged by: Thomas Jefferson
  • Paine Collected Writings, By: Thomas Paine
  • The Art Of Procuring Pleasant Dreams, By: Benjamin Franklin
  • Book Of Virtues, By: Benjamin Franklin
  • The Autobiography Of Benjamin Franklin, By: Benjamin Franklin, Prepared and annotated with introduction by editors of: The Papers Of Benjamin Franklin, Foreword by: Edmund S. Morgan

18th Century Podcast: Episode 25 Christmas

18th Century Christmas

Listen here: https://anchor.fm/cj123/episodes/18th-Century-Podcast-Episode-25-Christmas-e9gtf5/a-a15mguc

Summary

In this episode of the 18th Century Podcast, I discuss what Christmas was like during the 18th Century. Most of what is discussed in this episode focuses on the English and Colonial traditions, but a couple others are mentioned as well. This will be the last 18th Century Podcast episode of 2019. The show will resume in January of 2020. I do not know the exact date as of yet, but it will be a Saturday. I wish you all a Merry Christmas, Happy Holidays, and a Happy New Year.

Script

INTRO

Welcome back to the 18th Century Podcast. I am your host, Cj. In today’s episode, we’ll be discussing Christmas during the 18th Century. The main focus will be on the British and the Americas for Christmas, but I may try to delve into a few other Countries’ traditions too. If you’d like to read the script for this episode and its citations, go to 18thcentury.home.blog that’s 1, 8, t h, century dot home dot blog. Type the numbers don’t spell them. Alright, let’s get right into it!

PART 1 HISTORY

18th Century Christmas was similar to modern 21st in some ways, and others, very different. Starting with the Colonies. I’m going to cheat again here and jump back to the 17th Century. For the most part, the Colonists were Protestants. Many of which in the 17th Century New England was a mixture of Puritans among a few other Protestant groups. In these early days, they frowned upon the celebration of Christmas, and in some areas, even outlawed it. For example, in Massachusettes during the year 1659, the General Court forbade the celebration of Christmas. If someone was caught celebrating, they would suffer a fine of five shillings per offense. Around the same time, the Assembly of Connecticut also prohibited the celebration of Christmas and Christmas related material, such as the Book of Common Prayer. Their view at the time was that Christmas was too close to Pagan ceremonies, thus it was greatly frowned upon. This would continue into the 18th Century, though as time went on, attitudes relaxed a little. Many denominations still didn’t celebrate though. For example, the Quakers would treat Christmas during the 18th Century just like any other day. Presbyterians didn’t pay it much mind, but they saw their congregation attend other churches on Christmas, so they eventually picked up the practice as well. Christmas was more celebrated by denominations such as Roman Catholics, Lutherans, Anglicans, and a couple of others. If you’d like to get a better geographic picture of where Christmas was celebrated it was more in New York, Pennsylvania, Maryland, and the Southern Colonies. Now, if we hop over to Europe, we see Christmas celebrated more. Festivities were held in Great Britain and most of the rest of Europe too. During the 18th Century, we’ll see the development of some Christmas Carrolls, Hymns, and early versions of Christmas Cards. I’ll be going over these and a few other things related to Christmas as we go further into this episode. But I think we should first discuss how long the Christmas celebration really was.

PART 2 Christmas Time

Christmas in modern times is typically celebrated on two days, December 24th and December 25th. Unless you’re an Orthodox Christian, then Christmas is celebrated on January 7th. Yet in the 18th Century focusing on Western Christianity, the Christmas season could last between 12 to 40 days long. December 25th would still mark Christmas day. Now the next days going forward would depend on your denomination if you would celebrate them or not. So, December 26th marked Saint Stephens Day. Then, December 27th marked Saint John the Evangelist’s Day. December 28th would mark Holy Innocents day. This would go on until January 1st which would mark the Circumcision of Jesus. On January 1st it would end with the Feast of the Circumcision. Between December 25th and January 1st, this was referred to as the octave week, since it was an 8 day-long celebration. Then going forward to January 6th, we have the Epiphany of Jesus which was celebrated with the Feast of the Epiphany. Thus this would mark the 12 days of Christmas. So, where do the 40 days come from then? February 2nd marked the Purification of the Virgin Mary, which was also celebrated with a feast. Here’s an interesting tidbit I found as well, on December 27th, which was Saint John the Evangelist’s day, it was especially celebrated by the Free Masons. During the 18th Century, there were considered 2 patron Saints of the Free Masons. The first being Saint John the Evangelist, and the second being Saint John the Baptist. The Masons would celebrate in their towns or villages with special activities and sometimes dressed in their full garb. For example in Virginia, the Masons would hold a procession from their lodge to their local church. The Masons at the time would then hold a special sermon that may have invoked feelings of brotherhood, love, and unity. Afterward, they would have attended a ball and supper with their wives and friends. One of their members would have been selected to organize the event which would have taken place either in a local tavern or someone’s home. Now, were going to take a short break and when we come back, we’ll take a look at some of the traditions and customs that made up an 18th Century Christmas. We’ll be right back.

PART 3 CHRISTMAS FOOD

Welcome back. We’ll begin the second half of today’s episode by discussing Christmas foods of the 18th Century. Due to improved agriculture, Christmas foods differed from the past few centuries. Some foods would come into favor, and others would fall out of favor. Roasts and fowl were common meats seen at the Christmas table. Yet as the years dragged on and especially in the Colonies, turkey became the main meat at Christmas. In England, mince pies were popular and had been popular for a couple of centuries. They were first made with minced meat, but as time went on they were made with dried fruit and spices instead. Other popular foods from the time which you might have found at the Christmas table were cheeses, soups, duck, geese, and pudding. There would also be some variation based upon where you lived during the time. For drinks, alcoholic punches were popular along with wine and brandy. One more thing I want to mention here is Twelfth Night Cake. This would have been a very large cake. To give you an estimate on size, if your Twelfth Night Cake weighed five pounds, that was on the light side of things. Townsends did an excellent video on how to make a Twelfth Night Cake, and I will post their video on the blog. I highly recommend watching it. One tradition surrounding the cake was that while it was being made, a bean or perhaps a coin was placed into the mixture. If you were the lucky soul to get the bean or coin in your slice you were regarded as the King for the night. It all went along with a festive attitude. 

PART 4 CHRISTMAS CUSTOMS AND TRADITIONS

One modern conception of Christmas is the focus around family and children. However, children played a lesser part in 18th Century Christmas celebrations. The Christmas Parties which would occur later in the day were reserved typically for adults only. At Christmas Parties, games were prevalent too. Certain card games would have been played, along with other games such as Hunt the Slipper, blind man’s bluff, and shoe the wild mare. Stories were told, Carolling was to be had, and dances were common. Mix the games with an assortment of food and alcohol, and the time was very merry. Decorations were common in churches. There was a practice called, “sticking of the Church” during the period where green boughs were placed in the Church on Christmas Eve. From the Church roof, walls, and pillars, garlands of holly, mistletoe, ivy, and the like were hung. The pews and pulpit were also decorated with garlands as well. Herbs were placed throughout the Church to give it a pleasant holiday scent. People’s homes were also decorated in a similar fashion. Though the amount of decoration was based upon what you could afford given your social standing in society. Gift giving was something we today would have in common with the 18th Century celebration. Small gifts were given to children such as little books, or small amounts of candy. Children would not give gifts to their parents or other important adults in their life. One tradition from Amsterdam was that St. Nicholas would fill the wooden shoes of children with fruit or perhaps candy. Gifts were exchanged among adult peers as well. It was also common for the wealthy to bestow gifts to those they employed. We also see the beginnings of Christmas Cards. Though they weren’t exactly cards. They were called, Christmas Pieces, and they were pre-printed with holiday-themed borders and they were written by schoolboys. These Christmas Pieces were only popular in large cities such as London. Now one of the largest symbols of Christmas in modern times is perhaps, the Christmas tree. Though in the 18th Century, the Christmas tree was largely reserved to the Germans. The first recorded Christmas tree in England was in the year 1800, which is the cut off for this podcast. Though it was brought forth under King George III’s wife, Queen Charlotte.

PART 5 CHRISTMAS CAROLS AND OTHER SONGS

For the last section of this episode, we’ll discuss Christmas Carols along with other holiday songs and music. I want to start off by saying, they were very popular. One popular hymn, Joy to the World, was written in 1719, though the tune was different than what we know it to be today. A man named Isaac Watts was the author and he based, Joy to the World, on Psalm 98. Watts didn’t create a tune for the hymn and he sorta left it up to interpretation. Another carol which may have been sung was, Hark the Herald Angels Sing. This hymn was first published in 1739, by a man named Charles Wesley. Though Wesley’s original writing of the carol was a bit different than our modern version. Instead of, “Hark the Herald Angels Sing” it was, “Hark! How All the Welkin Rings.” The word, “Welkin” was a word that meant, “vault of heaven.” Though the change of lyric occurred in 1753 when the evangelist George Whitefield, thought that the word, “Welkin” might confuse some people, so he made the change and added it to his anthology of hymns. Again, we don’t know exactly how these carols were meant to be sung, and even during the 18th Century, there was variation. One carol that we probably would recognize though in entirety is Deck the Halls. Though it should be noted that Deck the Halls is the secular version of a Welsh hymn. People would sing out these and many other carols to celebrate the holiday. Carols would have been sung in church and at the home, in private with family, and at parties. Singing Christmas Carols was very popular.

OUTRO

This brings us to the end of this 18th Century Podcast episode, and it’s the last episode of the year. Yes, dear listener, I will be taking a break for the holiday season. The podcast will be returning sometime in January. I don’t know the exact date, but I will continue with the Saturday uploads once the podcast returns. I wish you all a Merry Christmas, Happy Holidays, and a Happy New Year. The script and citations for this episode and all other episodes can be found at 18thcentury.home.blog that’s 1, 8, t h, century dot home dot blog. Type the numbers don’t spell them. If you’d like to support the show, please share it and leave a review. I’ve been your host Cj, and thank you for listening to this episode of the 18th Century Podcast.

CITATIONS

DeSimone, David. “Traditions – Another Look at Christmas in the Eighteenth Century.” Traditions – Another Look at Christmas in the Eighteenth Century : The Colonial Williamsburg Official History Site, 1995, https://www.history.org/almanack/life/christmas/hist_anotherlook.cfm.

Powers, Emma L. “Traditions – Christmas Customs.” Traditions – Christmas Customs : The Colonial Williamsburg Official History Site, 1995, https://www.history.org/almanack/life/christmas/hist_customs.cfm.

Early Modern England. “Georgian Christmas: An Eighteenth Century Celebration.” Early Modern England, 22 Dec. 2013, http://www.earlymodernengland.com/2013/12/georgian-christmas-an-eighteenth-century-celebration/.

Carroll, Heather. “Your Guide to an 18th Century Christmas.” The Duchess of Devonshire’s Gossip Guide to the 18th Century, 21 Dec. 2009, http://georgianaduchessofdevonshire.blogspot.com/2009/12/your-guide-to-18th-century-christmas.html.

“Colonial Williamsburg.” Colonial Williamsburg, https://www.history.org/almanack/life/christmas/graphics/hist_customimage.jpg.

18th Century Podcast Episode 18 English Dinner Party

18th century cooking

Listen here: https://anchor.fm/cj123/episodes/18th-Century-Podcast-Episode-18-English-Dinner-Party-e635st/a-aq6g8m

Summary

In today’s episode, we will be discussing the subject of the English Dinner Party from the 18th Century. I’ll be going over a few recipes too.

Script

INTRO

Welcome back to the 18th Century Podcast. I am your host, Cj. In today’s episode, we will be discussing the subject of the English Dinner Party from the 18th Century. I’ll be going over a few recipes too. Some of the food mentioned and the recipes provided in this episode I got from the 18th Century Cooking, series on youtube put out by Townsends. I’ll provide links to their videos at the bottom of the script post for this episode. If you’d like to read the script for this episode and its citations, go to 18thcentury.home.blog that’s 1, 8, t h, century dot home dot blog. Type the numbers don’t spell them. Let’s begin this episode by taking a look at the dinner party from the 18th Century.

PART 1 THE DINNER

I think talking about the dinner itself is a good place to commence. We’ll be taking a look at this from primarily an English perspective. More specifically, for the upper class. Dinner was a very formal meal. You could say it was regarded as the most important meal. There were instances of women taking the time to change clothes specifically for dinner. Men would also prepare themselves for dinner but would usually take less time than women. It was important especially for the young to dress well, for if they were single, these dinners might lead to courtship. Dessert after the dinner was considered less formal than the dinner itself. Each house had its own set time for dinner and the hours would vary. When having guests, the dinner would commence once the Lady of the house would request the most prominent woman guest to bring the other ladies to the table. Going off of this cue, the Master of the house would do the same for the men. The host and hostess would seat themselves first. The Master would sit at the foot of the table, and the Lady would sit at the head. After this, the most senior Lady would pick her place at the table, once she sat, the other guests were free to pick their spots. However, it was more socially acceptable to place oneself regarding social rank. During the first half of the Century, guests were expected to bring their own flatware, but that custom was disregarded during the second half of the century. Forks would be placed on the left, and the spoons with the knives would be placed on the right. You would not eat with a fork. The fork was reserved for holding meat in place while you cut it. The knives were broad at the time and did not come to a point. You would place your food on your knife and consume it using that utensil. When the dinner knives lost their point at the end, we began to see the beginnings of toothpicks. An interesting piece regarding napkins as they were in use in the early part of the century. However, they fell out of favor for the English, being viewed as too French. Dinner guests were thus expected to wipe their mouths with the table cloth instead. An interesting thing of note is once the guests were seated, the plates were not yet on the table. Kitchens were typical further away from the dining table, so once they reached the table they were typically lukewarm. The plates were kept near a fire or specialty warmers while the food arrived. Plates were then placed in front of the guests, so the plate could act as a vessel to reheat the food. The wine or beer glasses were kept chilled with ice brought from an ice house. We can infer that if they were using ice to chill their glasses, it was a symbol of status. Ice was expensive, so if you could afford to use some, it was a subtle way to flaunt your wealth. The wealthy would eat off of porcelain plates among the other dishes, and they were typically white with a blue pattern upon them. Centerpieces were also common, and they could be a multitude of things, such as sugar sculptures. These centerpieces could have been used as a topic of conversation. Servants would handle the food and dishes on the table. The dinner would be served in multiple corses. How each course was arranged on the table was an art in and of itself, and there were books dedicated to the topic. Typically there would be two courses and dessert. Each course could contain anywhere from five to around twenty-five dishes. As a guest, you were not expected to try something from every dish. The layout would typically be as follows with some variation: Meat dishes in the middle of the table, sides would be on the corners, soup would be placed at one end, and fish at the other. The meal would begin with the guests being served soup. Wine would be served with the meal. If you wished to take a drink, there was a sort of ritual to it. If a guest wished to take a drink they first had to make eye contact with another guest and raise your glass. Once the person you made eye contact with raises their glass, you may take a sip. However, you then must wait for someone to make eye contact with you and raise a glass before you can take another sip during the dinner. Each guest would eat from two to three dishes per course. The amounts they took were at their discretion. If a guest wanted something from across the table, they would have a servant retrieve it for them. Once the first course was complete, the dishes would be removed from the table. A new tablecloth, plates, and flatware were brought forth to the guests. The second course would consist of lighter foods, yes there were meats, but there was also jellies and tarts. You could view the second corse as a bridge between the first and the dessert. Though other beverages were sometimes available such as beer or ale, wine was preferred. Port and sherry were popular. I would like to note, you may find wine called sac, but sac was the equivalent of sweet sherry.

After the second course finished, the tablecloth would be removed and not replaced. Desserts would consist of small cakes, dried fruits, candied fruit and the like. The Gentleman attending would drink port typically, and the ladies would consume a sweet wine. The dinner rules relaxed once dessert was served. You no longer had to make eye contact with another to drink, you could simply drink. Other formalities such as seating went away with dessert. Guests could rearrange themselves to sit however they wished. The topics of conversation became more relaxed as more coarse topics were now allowed to be discussed. A curious rule regarding relieving oneself was present. It was considered rude to leave the table during the actual dinner if you felt as though you had to use the bathroom. To accommodate this, a chamberpot was kept off to the side of the room for guests to use, so they could relieve themselves without breaking the flow of conversation. The dinner itself would last about two hours. Once the meal was complete, a glass of wine was served to each guest. When everyone had finished this glass of wine, the hostess would stand and a servant would open the doors. The ladies would follow their hostess out of the dining room and into the drawing-room. The gentleman would remain in the dining room drinking and conversing with one another. Now we’re going to take a short break, and when we come back, we’ll take a look at some of the foods served and the preparation of the dinner parties. We’ll be right back.

PART 2 RECIPIES

Welcome back. We’ll continue the second half of today’s episode by briefly discussing 18th Century recipes. I tried to find information about 18th Century English Kitchens, but there is surprisingly very little information about that topic online. So, I’ll be giving you three recipes that may have been consumed at an English Dinner Party. Some of the recipes I’m providing here came from the Townsends youtube series, 18th Century Cooking. On the blog post for this episode, I’ll provide the video links so you can follow along at home. I highly recommend watching their videos, as they are simply fantastic. The first recipe will come from Mrs. Glasse’s book, The Art of Cookery Made Plain and Easy. The recipe we will be making is called, To Dress a Duck with Green Peas. As a side note, green peas were very popular during the 18th Century. Alright, the recipe is as follows, quote, “Put a deep stew-pan over the fire, with a piece of fresh butter; singe your duck and flour it, turn it in the pan two or three minutes, then pour out all the fat but let the duck remain in the pan : put to it a pint of good gravy, a pint of peas, two lettuces cut small, a small bundle of sweet herbs, a little pepper and salt, cover them close, and let them stew for half an hour, now and then give then pan a shake ; when they are just done, grate in a little nutmeg, and put in a very little beaten mace, and thicken it either with a piece of butter rolled in flour, or the yolk of an egg beat up with two or three spoonfuls of cream ; shake it all together for three or four minutes, take out the sweet herbs lay the duck in the dish, and pour the sauce over it. You may garnish with boiled mint chopped, or let it alone.” Unquote. The next recipe will be for a version of macaroni and cheese from Townsends video, “Macaroni” – A Recipe From 1784. First, start by boiling 4 oz. of short tube pasta which should be around an inch and a half. After it has finished boiling, strain the pasta through a sieve to let it dry. The put it in a frying pan topped with a jill of heavy cream, and a ball of butter rolled in flour. Place the pan over the fire or a stove for about five minutes. Take the pan off and put the contents in a bowl. Top it with a lot of parmesan cheese, and toast it with a salamander. You’ll want the cheese to lightly brown. If you’d like, you could add a little pepper to top it off. For our final recipe which also comes from Townsends, we’ll make, a cream puff, or as they title it, “Whipt Cream, Like Snow” – Not Your Typical Whipped Cream. To make this, start by boiling about 1 cup of water. Add about a tablespoon of sugar. Next, add a little lemon zest. Then you’ll want to add about 4 oz. of butter. Then add a little salt. Slowly add in flour while stirring, and when it begins to separate from the sides, take it off the oven or fire. Let it cool a little but still keep it warm. Add eggs in one by one and thoroughly stir each one in. You’ll want it to get to a smooth silky texture. Around three eggs should do. Add blobs of the batter to a cooking sheet. Set your oven to 375 and put it in for about a half-hour. While that’s baking, begin the work on the cream. To a large bowl, add a pint of heavy cream. Add sugar to taste (perhaps a quarter cup). Then the juice of a lemon. Next, add about a cup of sac or sweet sherry. Then you’ll want to whip it to make whipped cream. Once the pastries are done in the oven, take them out and let them cool. Once they are cooled, cut the tops off. Take a bit of the center out of the pastries to make room for the cream. Spoon in the whipped cream. Put the tops back on, and you’re ready to eat 18th Century Cream Puffs! 

OUTRO

Well, this brings us to the end of this episode of the 18th Century Podcast. I hope you found this episode as interesting as I did, and maybe I’ll do a few more episodes like this in the future if you guys want. The script and citations for this episode and all other episodes can be found at 18thcentury.home.blog that’s 1, 8, t h, century dot home dot blog. Type the numbers don’t spell them. If you’d like to support the show, please share it and leave a review. I’ve been your host Cj, and thank you for listening to this episode of the 18th Century Podcast.

CITATIONS

Verylargerabbit. “18th Century Table Setting.” The Edible Eighteenth Century, 5 Nov. 2012, https://engl3164.wordpress.com/2012/11/05/18th-century-table-setting/.

Shamo, Denis V. “Cultural Rules of Dining.” Rules of Dining in 18th Century England, http://umich.edu/~ece/student_projects/food/rules.htm.

Mrs. Glasse. The Art of Cookery Made Plain and Easy. 1st American ed., Cottom & Stewart, 1805. (First published in England in 1747)

Townsends. “‘Macaroni’ – A Recipe From 1784.” YouTube, YouTube, 26 Feb. 2018, https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=hV-yHbbrKRA.

Townsends. “‘Whipt Cream, Like Snow’ – Not Your Typical Whipped Cream.” YouTube, YouTube, 19 Aug. 2019, https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=tpoMQ5hNd1Y.

18th Century Podcast Episode 17 Drinks

1700s alcohol drinking

Listen here: https://anchor.fm/cj123/episodes/18th-Century-Podcast-Episode-17-Drinks-e5kho8/a-aouoh3

Summary

In this episode, we will be discussing different kinds of drinks from the 18th Century. I’ll be going over a few recipes too. Some of the drinks mentioned will be alcoholic, so if you decide to try one of the alcoholic drinks, please drink responsibly and be of legal age.

Script

INTRO

Welcome back to the 18th Century Podcast. I am your host, Cj. In today’s episode, we will be discussing different kinds of drinks from the 18th Century. I’ll be going over a few recipes too. Some of the drinks mentioned will be alcoholic, so if you decide to try one of the alcoholic drinks, please drink responsibly and be of legal age. Some of the drinks mentioned and the recipes provided in this episode I got from the 18th Century Cooking, series on youtube put out by Townsends. I’ll provide links to their videos on the bottom of the script post for this episode. If you’d like to read the script for this episode and its citations, go to 18thcentury.home.blog that’s 1, 8, t h, century dot home dot blog. Type the numbers don’t spell them. Let’s begin this episode by taking a look at a brief overview of 18th Century drinks.

PART 1 18TH CENTURY DRINKS

What may surprise you about the 18th Century is the multitude of available drinks. A wide range of alcoholic and nonalcoholic beverages can be found throughout the Century. Some of the non-alcoholic beverages may surprise you by the multitude of them. Also during the 18th Century regarding alcoholic beverages, we start to see the beginnings of cocktails. I want to start this off by giving a fun fact about water during the 18th Century. Water is perhaps the most basic drink we consume, and today we could get it right from our fridge or bottled. I think it’s clear that they didn’t have fridges back then, but they did have bottled water. If you were in the country and found a clean source of water, you’d probably drink it. But if you lived in a larger city, clean water was hard to come by. They didn’t know about germs at the time, but they could tell if water was clean or not. Water would be bottled from clean sources and sold to those in the city. Mineral water was also being sold during the 18th Century as it was viewed as having healing properties. Let’s continue with our next segment, non-alcoholic drinks.

PART 2 NON-ALCOHOLIC DRINKS 

I believe the most proper way to start discussing non-alcoholic beverages would be to talk about the most famous drink from the 18th Century, tea. Tea was perhaps one of the most popular drinks especially in England and the Colonies. They consumed it as green or black. Though tea was popular, that doesn’t mean it was cheap. Tea could cost up to 10 shillings per pound. Milk was commonly added to the drink. Personally, I have found myself enjoying green tea with a little cream once and a while. I will be devoting a future episode entirely to tea at some point because it’s a larger topic than you’d think. Regarding milk, the better quality milk was found out in the countryside on farms. There were cows brought in to provide milk for the cites, but these cows were typically in poor health due to their diet. People in the 18th Century didn’t typically drink milk by itself, and it was usually added to something instead. We can find the drink, hot chocolate found in the 18th Century, but they prepared somewhat similar to how we would do it. Taking a recipe from Elizabeth Raffald’s, The experienced English house-keeper, quote, “Scrape four ounces of chocolate and pour one quart of boiling water on it, mill it well with a chocolate mill and sweeten it to your taste; give it a boil and let it stand all night, then mill it again very well; boil it two minutes, then mill it, it will leave a froth upon the top of your cups.” unquote. Coffee was also a popular drink. Coffee Houses were popular in England and the Colonies, and the first ones date back to the 17th Century. Coffee Houses acted as a sort of hub for discussion and gossip. Just like today, coffee was a popular breakfast drink. Coffee and Hot Chocolate were typically drunk from cups without handles. Sometimes to cool their coffee, they would pour it into a saucer. Towards the end of the 18th Century, coffee would start to lose its popularity in England. An interesting 1730s summer drink which was supposed to be refreshing was Barley Water. If you’d like to try Barley Water, here’s a simple recipe. First, boil 4 ounces of barley, then add 1-2 quarts of water to cool. Next, you’ll want to add a stick of cinnamon, and 1 or 2 blades of mace. Bring it back up to a boil. After it boils, strain the liquid into a bowl. Let it cool to about room temperature. Add sugar to taste. Add the juice of around 2 lemons. Then you’ll want to bottle the drink and keep it cool. Once it’s cool you can serve and if you wish, garnish with lemon peel. If it’s kept cool the drink should keep for a few days. Now, I’m going to take a short break and when I come back we’ll discuss alcoholic drinks during the 18th Century. I’ll be right back.

PART 3 ALCOHOLIC DRINKS 

Welcome back. We’ll finish up the second half of this episode by discussing alcoholic drinks in the 18th Century. And based off of my research for this episode, they loved to drink. To give proof to this, let me quote a Georgian, quote, “If I take a settler after my coffee, a cooler at nine, a bracer at ten, a whetter at eleven and two or three stiffners during the forenoon, who has any right to complain?” Unquote. Also to further back this up with some numbers, in 1790 the United States found out that those who were 15 and older drank on average “thirty-four gallons of beer and cider, five gallons of distilled spirits, and one gallon of wine,” per capita annually. In the Americas Cider and Beer were the primary choice for a time. Before the American Revolution, rum was the preferred drink over whiskey. But because of patriotism during the American War of Independence attitudes shifted to a drink which was more local to the area, Whiskey. Going back to rum for a second, in the colonies alone by 1770 there were over 140 distilleries. When whiskey came into fashion in the Americas, it was Kentucky Bourbon which got near the top. During George Washington’s later life, he would distill whiskey on his property. I’ve been to the site, and if you ever get a chance to tour Mount Vernon, do so, and make sure to go through the distillery. In the morning John Adams would drink hard cider. Samuel Adams assisted in the running of his father’s brewery. John Hancock was accused of being a wine smuggler leading up to the Revolution. Thomas Jefferson would import French Wine. At one point, Patrick Henery was a bartender, and when he was the Virginia Governor he would serve his own brewed alcohol to his guests. Another prevalent drink during the 18th Century in the Americas and England was Small Beer. Small Beer was a low alcoholic beer which would have been consumed by men, women, and children during the 18th Century. It also went across class as both rich and poor would consume it. It could be found being served with meals, such as breakfast. You might not find the word cocktail in the 18th Century, but they did have mixed drinks. One such drink was called the Rattle-Skull. The Rattle-Skull was made with, “three to four ounces of hard liquor usually an equal split between rum and brandy would be dropped into a pint of strong porter, tarted up with the juice of half a lime and then showered with shaved nutmeg.” Another drink which you might have found at a tavern would have been a Stone Fence. A Stone Fence was made by pouring two ounces of dark rum into a glass, then topping it with hard cider. You might want the cider to be a little sweet too. Perhaps one of the most interesting recipes I found was for a drink called a Whipped Syllabub, which would have also acted as a dessert. To make a Whipped Syllabub, take a glass of wine (your choice) and add a teaspoon of sugar to it, or sugar to taste if you prefer. Stir the sugar in until it dissolves. To make the whipped part, in a bowl pour a cup of white wine, mix in the juice of 2 lemons, and a 1/2 cup of granulated sugar. Stir this until the sugar is dissolved. To the bowl, and one pint of heavy cream. Whip the bowl’s contents into a froth. Once you’ve completed whipping, layer the whip on top of the wine. You can garnish with a little nutmeg if you so desire. You’re going to consume this with a spoon. You can eat each layer one by one, or you can stir the whip with the wine and consume it that way.

OUTRO

Well, this brings us to the end of this episode of the 18th Century Podcast. It was fascinating to learn about the different types of drinks which were consumed during the 18th Century. I hope you found this episode to be as interesting as I did. The script and citations for this episode and all other episodes can be found at 18thcentury.home.blog that’s 1, 8, t h, century dot home dot blog. Type the numbers don’t spell them. If you’d like to support the show, please share it and leave a review. I’ve been your host Cj, and thank you for listening to this episode of the 18th Century Podcast.

CITATIONS

Crews, Ed. “Drinking in Colonial America: Rattle-Skull, Stonewall, Bogus, Blackstrap, Bombo, Mimbo, Whistle Belly, Syllabub, Sling, Toddy, and Flip.” Drinking in Colonial America: Rattle-Skull, Stonewall, Bogus, Blackstrap, Bombo, Mimbo, Whistle Belly, Syllabub, Sling, Toddy, and Flip : The Colonial Williamsburg Official History & Citizenship Site, 2007, https://www.history.org/foundation/journal/holiday07/drink.cfm.

Swindell, Melissa. “What Was in Colonial Cups besides Tea? Cider, Water, Milk, and Whiskey!” National Museum of American History, 29 Sept. 2015, https://americanhistory.si.edu/blog/2012/12/what-was-in-colonial-cups-besides-tea-cider-water-milk-and-whiskey.html.

Geri Walton. “Popular Drinks of the Georgian Era.” Geri Walton, 14 Nov. 2016, https://www.geriwalton.com/popular-drinks-of-georgian-era/.

Murden, Sarah. “A Cup of Tea Anyone, Made the 18th Century Way?” All Things Georgian, 8 June 2019, https://georgianera.wordpress.com/2018/05/31/a-cup-of-tea-anyone-made-the-18th-century-way/.

Murden, Sarah. “18th Century Drinking Chocolate.” All Things Georgian, 28 Apr. 2018, https://georgianera.wordpress.com/2015/01/06/18th-century-drinking-chocolate/.

“History of Bottled Water.” EFBW, https://www.efbw.org/index.php?id=39.

Major, Joanne. “A Brief History of Coffee in the Georgian Era.” All Things Georgian, 8 May 2018, https://georgianera.wordpress.com/2018/04/12/a-brief-history-of-coffee-in-the-georgian-era/.

Townsends. “Barley Water From 1734 – Perfect Drink For This Summer Heat!” YouTube, YouTube, 8 July 2019, https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=zV1FuzftraI.

Townsends. “What Is Small Beer? – Q&A.” YouTube, YouTube, 19 May 2016, https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=dtjN1qWoflk.

Townsends. “Making Easy and Delicious Whipped Syllabubs.” YouTube, YouTube, 4 May 2015, https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=y6NIMNkaGI4.