18th Century Podcast Episode 20 Catherine the Great

Catherine the Great

Listen here: https://anchor.fm/cj123/episodes/18th-Century-Podcast-Episode-20-Catherine-the-Great-e7s0ok/a-atdqu8

Summary

In today’s episode, we’ll be going over the life of Catherine the Great. From being a foreigner of Russia to it’s Empress, learn with me about the life of one of Russia’s greatest rulers as she brought in it’s golden age.

Script

INTRO

Welcome back to the 18th Century Podcast. I am your host, Cj. In today’s episode, we’ll be going over the life of Catherine the Great. I thought this was appropriate to make this episode now given the fact that HBO is releasing a miniseries about Catherine the Great, which comes out this Monday, October 21st, 2019. I am not endorsed by HBO. If you’d like to read the script for this episode and its citations, go to 18thcentury.home.blog that’s 1, 8, t h, century dot home dot blog. Type the numbers don’t spell them. Let’s kick things off by taking a look at Catherine’s early life.

PART 1 EARlY LIFE

Catherine the Great young

Cathrine was born on May 2, 1729. But her name wasn’t Cathrine at the time. Her birth name was Sophia Frederike Auguste, and she was born in Stettin, Prussia. Her father was Prussian Prince Christian August von Anhalt-Zerbst. Her mother was Princess Johanna Elisabeth of Holstein-Gottorp. Though her family was royalty, money was sparse. She would be educated by a French governess, among other tutors. Her education was common for a person of her rank. She was instructed in French and German. She also had lessons in history, music, and religion. She was brought up in the Lutheran faith. She would first meet her future husband who also happened to be her second cousin when she was ten. This meeting took place as a political arrangement by Peter III’s aunt, Empress Elizabeth of Russia. Sophia did not like Peter III on their first meeting, as she found him to be detestable. Empress Elizabeth took a liking to Sophia. Sophia would travel to Russia in 1744 with the prospect of marriage to Peter III. The reason for their union was pure politics. It was an arrangement between Frederick the Great and Empress Elizabeth, to strengthen the ties between their countries. Sophia would learn the Russian language, and do it with a fervent passion. Though her accent would remain foreign, She became near fluent in the language. In March of 1744, she did suffer a bout of phenomena, but it didn’t keep her down for long. In 1745, Sophia would convert to Eastern Orthodoxy, and received the new name, Catherine. Her father disapproved of her conversion, as being a devout Luthern himself. The day after Catherine converted, she formally married Peter III. Their marriage ceremony took place on August 21st. Her father would not travel to Russia to attend the ceremony. After their wedding, they settled into a palace. Their marriage wouldn’t go down in history as a happy one. Peter would spend his time making people act out drills, playing with toy soldiers, and chasing women. He supposedly had a consort. Catherine was rumored to have multiple consorts herself, but she also enjoyed passing the time by reading. The pair would produce a son, who was welcomed into the world in 1754, he was named Paul and would become a future Czar of Russia. Unfortunately for Catherine, her son was taken from her almost immediately after his birth. He was to be raised under the guise of his grandmother, Empress Elizabeth. Cathrine was allowed to see her son briefly during his christening a month later, and then again six months afterward. Peter had little to no interest in being a parent, but from what I can infer, Cathrine did. She would produce another child, and this time it would be a daughter, Anna, who would tragically die an infant in 1757. She would produce one more son, Alexi. Then in 1762, Empress Elizabeth died, leaving Peter III to take the throne. 

PART 2 THE COUP

Catherine the Great military riding a horse

In 1762, Empress Elizabeth died, which then Peter ascended to the throne as the Czar of Russia. Cathrine and Peter III moved from their Winter Palace to Saint Petersburg. Peter III had a fascination with Fredrick the Great, but his fascination seemed to alienate some of the Russian politicians. He changed sides in the Seven Years War, allying himself with his once enemy, Prussia. Cathrine wasn’t a big fan of her husband’s new policies either. There was a dispute between the Duchy of Holstein and Denmark over a province. Peter III started to gear up for war against Denmark over this dispute, but he didn’t find much support for it in the Capitol. Many politicians viewed the possible war as unnecessary, and a waste. Along with disgruntled politicians, Cathrine hatched a plot to overthrow her husband and take the throne for herself. During July of 1762, Peter III took a holiday along with his Holstein-born courtiers and relatives. He was just about six months into his reign at this point. Cathrine and her conspirators plotted the whole time, but their plan would have to move quicker than they thought. July 8th, 1762, Cathrine is woken in the night being informed that one of the conspirators has been arrested. The time to act is now. Cathrine raced out of the palace and made her way to a regiment of soldiers. She gave a speech asking for their protection, and the swore fealty to her. The regiment followed her as she made her way to the Semenovsky Barracks, where members of the clergy were waiting for her. The orthodox clergy ordained Cathrine as Empress of Russia. Now with the military backing her, the clergy, and some members of the State, she had everything in place. The only thing left was for Peter III to formally abdicate. Under Catherine’s orders, Peter III was arrested, and he signed a document formally abdicating. On July 17th, Peter III was killed. He reigned for about six months in total. It is not known if Catherine had a hand in his death. But now, everything was in place for Catherine to rule. We’re going to take a short break, and when we come back we’ll discuss Catherine’s time as Empress.

PART 3 EMPRESS OF RUSSIA

Catherine the Great Empress of Russia

Welcome back. Cathrine’s reign would bring Russia into a golden age. She was an advocate of The Enlightenment and implemented its ideas into her rule. Yet those ideas would be set in the years to come. One of her first acts as Empress was to recall the troops sent to fight Denmark, which prevented a war. This was a popular decision among the military at the time and granted her more of their favor. Under Peter, church land was seized, Cathrine returned the land to the church. However, later in her reign, she would nationalize the church. She attempted to model herself after Peter the Great. He was still a popular figure even after a few decades since his passing. She would also push for domestic reform to benefit her subjects. She advocated for a document known as the Nakaz, which would have outlawed capital punishment and torture. It also sought to see every man equal before the law. She also attempted to set reforms for the benefit of the serfs but it wasn’t popular in the Senate. She eventual got the Nakaz finalized. What happened next was the formation of the Legislative Commission, which would conduct its first meeting in 1767. No laws were brought forth from the Legislative Commission, but Russians from across the country got together to discuss matters for the first time in their history. The Legislative Commission was disbanded in 1768 when war broke out with the Ottomans. But this was triggered by conflict in Poland. She had made decent gains in Poland and gifted the country to one of her ex-lovers. Russia had a dispute by how Russian Orthodox practitioners were treated in Poland and this lead to the conflict. In 1772 the partition of Poland would occur. Her military escapades angered the Ottomans and they went to war with one another. In a way, this was a political blessing. She gained many victories over the Ottomans and established Russia as a military power in the world. She reached a peace treaty with the Ottomans in 1774, and yet again would expand Russian territory. On the homefront, however, she would face numerous peasant revolts. The peasants, or serfs, were tied to their owners, essentially being treated like slaves in all but name. between 1762 to 1769 there were around 50 minor revolts, all of which were put down. This tension would come to a head with Pugachev’s Rebellion, which lasted from 1773 to 1775. The serfs had some initial success but were eventually squashed. The leader of the rebellion was betrayed and captured. He was beheaded in Moscow in 1775, thus ending the rebellion. Cathrine’s early attitudes of liberalizing Russia were diminished after the rebellion. She wished to rescind the reforms she had made in favor of the serfs. During the 18th Century, Russia was viewed as a backwoods country with outdated ideas. Cathrine sought to bring Russia back into the light of her fellow Europeans. She implemented many education reforms and expanded educational opportunities for both boys and girls. In 1766, the Russian Cadet Corp school received some reforms. This military academy was more liberalized and began to teach other subjects along with the cadets’ military education. On the religious front, she was more relaxed in her personal life but understood the church as a political tool. The nationalization of the church would help fund the State’s treasury. She was more tolerant of other beliefs though. In 1773 she passed the Toleration of All Faiths Edict. This allowed Muslims living within Russia to practice their religion and build mosques. Though she was a little strict with Roman Catholics, she was more lenient to Jesuits. In her personal life, she was a fan of the arts. As someone who had entertained the ideas of The Enlightenment, she did have a correspondence with Voltaire.

PART 4 FINAL YEARS

Catherine the Great old age

In her final years of life, Cathrine grew more and more conservative in her views. In 1785 she issued the Charter of the Nobility. The Charter would grant more power to the Nobility which was a reversal of what she wished to accomplish in her younger years. During the same year, it was declared that the Jewish population was foreign. Taxes would double for the Jews within Russia. In 1794, she declared Jews to have no relation with the State of Russia. Her relationship with her son Paul was poor, and she favored her grandchildren more, in particular, her grandson, Alexander. As she grew older her mind remained active and did not falter. She would see one more war in her life, this time with the Turks or Ottomans. They declared war on Russia in 1787, and the fighting would last four years resulting in a Russian victory and expansion of territory. In the 1790s, there were rebellions from Poland, but the country eventually got annexed out of existence between Russia, and her allies. As time dragged on in the 1790s, Cathrine would grow more and more concerned with her son Paul. She saw him as emotionally unfit, and this might liken back to her late husband. She preferred her grandson Alexander to be her heir, but she did not have time to make the official change. On November 17th, 1796, Cathrine the Great, died of a stroke.

OUTRO

Cathrine was a towering figure of the 18th Century and truly was one of the greats. I found her story fascinating. Again, the HBO miniseries on Cathrine is premiering Monday, October 21st, 2019. I’m not endorsed by HBO. I’ll probably watch the series, and I might give a review of it once it’s finished. The script and citations for this episode and all other episodes can be found at 18thcentury.home.blog that’s 1, 8, t h, century dot home dot blog. Type the numbers don’t spell them. If you’d like to support the show, please share it and leave a review. I’ve been your host Cj, and thank you for listening to this episode of the 18th Century Podcast.

CITATIONS

Lewis, Jone Johnson. “Biography of Catherine the Great, Empress of Russia.” ThoughtCo, Sep. 15, 2019, thoughtco.com/catherine-the-great-p2-3528624.

“Catherine II.” Biography.com, A&E Networks Television, 21 June 2019, https://www.biography.com/royalty/catherine-ii.

Pettinger, Tejvan. “Biography of Catherine the Great”, Oxford, UK. www.biographyonline.net. Published 27/02/2010. Last updated 13 February 2018.

“History – Catherine the Great.” BBC, BBC, http://www.bbc.co.uk/history/historic_figures/catherine_the_great.shtml.

Boundless. “Boundless World History.” Lumen, https://courses.lumenlearning.com/boundless-worldhistory/chapter/catherine-the-great-and-russia/.

18th Century Podcast: Episode 8 Frederick The Great

Frederick the Great

Listen here: https://anchor.fm/cj123/episodes/18th-Century-Podcast-Episode-8-Frederick-The-Great-e4l311/a-aivkbv

Summary

In this episode of the 18th Century Podcast we’re going to take a look at the life of Frederick the Great. We’ll take a look at the early life of this Prussian Monarch, his accession to the Throne, the War of Austiran Secession, the Seven Years War, some Domestic Policy, his Personal Life, and his Death. This man was a fascinating figure and a true pleasure to research.

Script

INTRO

Thank you for returning to the 18th Century Podcast, I am your host Cj. In today’s episode, we’ll be looking at the life of the Prussian King, Frederick the Great. This will act as an overarching guide to his life. Certain wars or other events Frederick the Great was involved in maybe covered more in-depth in future episodes. The purpose of this episode is to look at his life and who he was in a short biography. If you’d like to read the script for this episode and its citations, go to 18thcentury.home.blog that’s 1, 8, t h, century dot home dot blog. Type the numbers don’t spell them. Fredrick the Great is one of the most towering figures of the 18th Century. Let’s get into the birth and childhood of a King.

PART 1: YOUTH

Frederick the Great, young

Frederick the Great was born on January 24th, 1712 in Berlin. Frederick was born into the Hohenzollern family. His parents were King Frederick William I of Prussia and Princess Sophia Dorothea of Hanover. His mother was the daughter of King George I of Great Britan, her brother would later become King George II. His parent’s relationship was more political than romantic. In actuality, you could describe them as polar opposites. Frederick’s father was known as a “Soldier-King” who gave way to his temper. To provide an example of how bad his temper could get imagine a very angry man hitting you in the face with his cane, or if you are a woman walking down the street the King flat out kicks you. I think you could imagine how stern Frederick’s father was. On the other hand, his mother was very liberal with him. During Frederick the Great’s younger years in his education, it was very polarized. He was brought up among French Protestant governesses and tutors. He began to receive his education in subjects such as French, German, Poetry, Classical Literature, Philosophy and would acquire a taste for Italian Music. This early education was more of the influence of his mother. It’s safe to say at the very least, Frederick’s father was highly displeased with his son and heir receiving this type of education, especially in such a militarized society as Prussia. His father wanted him to indulge in more masculine activities for his education such as hunting, riding, and the military. Fredrick William I would have his son subjugated to being humiliated, and beaten which left the young Frederick the Great bloody. As time went on in his youth, Frederick the Great would draw closer with his sister, Wilhelmine. They would form a bond which would last a lifetime. When young Frederick came of age, he received a position in the military as a Junior Army Officer. He eventually befriended a young 22-year-old Hans Hermann Von Katte, who was the son of a General. Frederick and Katte had shared interests in French culture, such as literature and in music. The two of them grew closer. When Frederick was 18, Katte, Frederick, and a few other Junior Army Officers hatched a plan to run off to England. Unfortunately, their plan hopeful plan would end in tragedy. As the plan was set in motion, they were caught and promptly arrested. Frederick and Katte found themselves being accused of treason by their attempt to flee the country. Yes, the Crown-Prince of Prussia was being accused of treason against Prussia. I should note that there was a possibility that young Frederick and Katte were working with Britain to conspire against King Frederick William I. The two of them were stripped of rank and imprisoned. There was a chance Frederick could receive the death penalty, and his father, the King, wasn’t opposed to ruling it out. However, Frederick was lucky to survive the executioner’s block. His friend Katte was not as lucky. The date of execution for Hans Hermann Von Katte was November 6th, 1730. As Katte stepped out in the open air to meet his fate, Fredrick called out from behind bars to his friend, “My dear Katte, a thousand apologies.” Katte was said to have replied, “My prince, there is nothing to apologize for.” Frederick had fainted before the killing blow. He remained in prison for the next year by order of his father. During his time in prison, Frederick would befriend a couple of his fellow inmates. One of his prison friends, Michael Gabriel Fredersdorf, the son of a peasant, would eventually rise through the ranks once Frederick was crowned and become Chancellor of Prussia. Once Frederick was released, he was posted as a junior official at a local administration, without his military rank. In 1733 Frederick regained his title of Crown-Prince by marrying Elisabeth Christine von Braunschweig-Bevern on June 12th. The arranged marriage by King Frederick William I was not fruitful. In fact, Frederick the Great had little to do with his wife, they did not garner romance nor friendship. In 1734 Frederick would once again take part in the Army, and this time he would see action. He would serve under an Austrian, Eugene of Savoy, fighting against the French in the Rhineland. His father would give his son a castle, Rheinsberg which was north of Berlin. In his free time there, Frederick would be able to pursue his own interests such as composing music, playing the flute, watching plays, reading, writing, and similar activities. This period in his life would be remembered as a happy one. In 1739 Frederick finished writing a response to the ever so popular book, The Prince by Machiavelli. It was a sort of refutation of the ideas presented in Machiavelli’s book. Everything was going fine for our young Frederick, but then in 1740, everything changed. Prussia was about to get a new King.

PART 2 THE THRONE AND WAR

Frederick the Great in War

May 31st, 1740, the King in Prussia, Frederick William I, is dead. Our young Frederick had just inherited the throne. In his early days as King, Frederick would dominate his ministers. They would know, he’s in charge and setting policy. Frederick had a goal in mind, and that was to unite his lands. You see, at the time, part of Prussian territory laid within the Holy Roman Empire, and part of it was external of the Empire. This more or less was a problem. Being the sovereign over different lands, where you’re subject to an Emperor, but at the same time, a King in different territory caused some conflict. Frederick wanted to unify his lands into one Prussian State. Merely a few months after gaining the throne, Frederick would get his chance. On October 20th, of the same year, the Holy Roman Emperor, Charles VI died. He had left his daughter, Archduchess Maria Theresa as the heir. I would like to note, Charles VI was a member of the Habsburg family. Maria’s claims were somewhat disputed, her government was weak, and her only real major supporter was Russia. Frederick hoped that Maria would cede the territory of Silesia, a region of Southwestern Poland, in return for Prussian support. This didn’t turn out so well. Frederick marched his army into Silesia, in late 1740. He justified this invasion by an old treaty from 1537. This action of invasion would kick off the War of the Austrian Succession, and First Silesian War. Then in April of 1741, Frederick would receive his first military victory at the battle of Mollwitz. Maria was also facing a coalition of French, Spanish, and Bavarians. She signed a temporary peace with Prussia. Frederick would be allowed to hold Silesia so long as hostilities ceased. As time marched on, Maria found success against the French and Bavarians. Frederick was offset by these actions and in 1742, he invaded a region South of Silesia, Moravia, which was under Austrian control. Frederick would gain victory once more, and this action would force Maria to sign the Treaty of Berlin, a peace treaty with Frederick in July of 1742. The treaty allowed Prussia to stay in Silesia, but in return, Frederick had to help provide defense against French, Spanish and Bavarian forces. As the war went on, Maria would gain more in power and victory against her enemies. Frederick was alarmed by this once more, and in August of 1744, he invaded Bohemia. He was met with success and he overtook the region. Polish elector Agustus III, allied himself with Maria and the two of them invaded Prussian held Silesia. Due to the strength and discipline of his Army, Frederick won twice against the invaders. The first would occur in June, and the second in September 1745. Frederick would then respond by invading Saxony, which was controlled by Agustus III. The fighting would come to an end on December 25, 1745, with the Treaty of Dresden. Silesia was officially in Frederick’s control. There were benefits to holding Silesia, chiefly among them were the regions economic advantages. After the war, Frederick would receive the title of Frederick the Great. On the homefront after the war, Frederick made some changes in his domestic policy. There was more toleration of religious freedom, reforms in the justice system, and more freedom to the press. These reforms aligned more closely with enlightenment values. Meanwhile back with Maria, she was not so chipper about losing her territory, and after careful political maneuvers, she was forming an alliance with France and Russia. Yet again unhappy with this turn of events, Frederick decided to do the logical thing and preemptively attack. During peacetime, Frederick built up his Army to 154,000 men strong. He moved his army into Saxony. This would occur during the beginning of the Seven Years War. Among Frederick’s allies were Britain, and Hanover. He would be up against Austria, France, Russia, Sweden, and Saxony. Fredericks campaign was met with initial success in Agust of 1756, and he continued onwards into Bohemia. Bohemia was less successful, and in June 1757, he was being pushed back. He did start to get victories in November and December against the Austrians and the French. The British started to subsidize the Prussian Military in 1758 and would continue to do so through 1762. Between 1758 to 1760 Frederick would face a mixture of victories and defeats. In 1760 Austro-Russian forces had captured and occupied Berlin. Frederick was devastated by this, and he contemplated suicide. There must have been a change in the wind because lady luck turned towards his favor. The Empress of Russia died in January 1762, and Peter III ascended the Czardom. Czar Peter III had admiration for Federick. In May Prussia and Russia signed an armistice agreement. Treaty negotiations would begin, and they turned unfavorable towards Maria. Her wishes of reclaiming Silesia were dashed. Then on February 15th, 1763, the Treaty of Hubertusburg was signed. Prussia would hold onto its territory, and its reputation as a military power was cemented. Yet during the war, Frederick would lose 180,000 men. Wanting to avoid another war at such a scale, Frederick would sign a treaty in 1764, forming an alliance with Russia. This alliance would span 16 years and come to a close in 1780. Now, we’re going to take a short break and when we come back we’ll take a look at the next major event Frederick was involved in, the first partition of Poland.

PART 3 THE FIRST PARTITION OF POLAND

Frederick the Great 1772 at the first Partition of Poland

Welcome back, everyone. Poland, everyone wants a piece of Poland. I don’t know why, but it seems like all throughout their history, everyone has wanted a piece of Poland at one point or another. This next chapter in the life of Frederick the Great begins with Russia. After the murder of Peter III, Catherine II ascended the Russian Throne. Unlike Peter III, Catherine II was not such a fan of Prussia. Though Frederick and Catherine disliked each other, they did form an alliance on April 11th, 1764, as mentioned prior. The alliance would guarantee Prussia’s control over Silesia, and Prussia agreed to back Russia if they came into conflict with the Austrians or Ottomans. In September of 1764, Catherine’s candidate for the throne of Poland was elected. Catherine’s Russia began to gain more and more influence over Poland in 1767. This disturbed Frederick. The winter of 1770 to 1771, Frederick’s brother Henry acted as a representative of Prussia in St. Petersburg. Catherine was looking to expand her borders into Southeastern Europe. However, there was great Austrian opposition to this policy. Frederick was looking to expand his territory as well. Austria also wished to expand their territory but they wanted to reclaim Silesia, or land in the Balkans. Through careful maneuvering, Henry convinced Catherine to partake in a partition of Poland, and ditch expansion into Southeastern Europe. Eventually, his brother also convinced Austria to join in as well. There was concern over the balance of power in the region, but Henry convinced the three States that expanding their territory by slicing off bits of Poland would ensure the balance. Frederick had his eyes on West Prussia, to finally unite Prussia into one State. Though the inhabitants of West Prussia were predominately Polish. In 1771 Frederick would speak his disdain for the Polish State and it’s people to Voltaire. He considered the citizens of West Prussia to be uncivilized. Then in 1772, it happened, Frederick annexed West Prussia and united the two Prussia’s into one Kingdom. Frederick had gained 20,000 square miles of land. Frederick encouraged Germans to immigrate into the newly acquired territory with the goal of displacing the local Polish population. German officials would also look down upon the Polish populace. Ironically, Frederick would eventually befriend a few Poles.

PART 4 DOMESTIC POLICY, PERSONAL LIFE, AND FINAL YEARS

Frederick the Great performing music

Now turning towards his domestic achievements, a bit about his personal life, and his final years. Frederick the Great viewed his service as King as a duty. It was one of the few things he had in common with his father. Personally, Frederick probably hated his father, but looking at King Frederick William I as a ruler, he appreciated what he did, in particular for the Military. During his time, the Prussian education system was marveled at in Europe. Under his reign, there was an expansion of agricultural development. They would drain swamps to make way for new farmland. Also, the potato and turnip were introduced as crops. He did slightly favor indirect taxes on imported goods over direct taxes on the populace. During the Seven Years War, the Prussian currency had decreased in value, which had led to higher prices domestically. To regain their currency’s value, the Mint Edict of May 1763 was proposed. The Prussian government began to accept taxes at its prewar value. This would lower the money supply, but the overall value of their currency increased. There were also several architectural achievements which occurred during his reign, some of which still exist in Berlin. For example St. Hedwig’s Cathedral, the Royal Library which goes under a different name today, and the Berlin State Opera. If you remember back in the first section of this episode, I mentioned Frederick had an interest in music, and he played the flute. For the flute, he had composed around 100 sonatas and 4 symphonies. In 1738 Frederick joined the Freemasons. He would also strike up a friendship with Voltaire. They mostly corresponded through letters, but Voltaire did visit Frederick between 1750 through 1753. The two of them did have a falling out but reconciled some years later. Frederick was a polyglot, speaking German, French, Spanish, Portuguese, Italian, and English. He also had a workable understanding of Ancient and Modern Greek, Latin, and Hebrew. His love of French culture continued throughout his life, preferring it over his native German. As Frederick got older, he began to withdraw from society. He would of course, still perform his official functions as Monarch, but socially, he began to prefer time with his greyhounds over people. Then on August 17th, 1786, Frederick the Great, died. He was buried next to his greyhounds.

OUTRO

I found the life of Frederick the Great to be a fascinating tale. He had a rough childhood, but he did wonderous things for his people. Like all figures through history, he wasn’t perfect, but there is no denying his accomplishments. As a bonus, I’ve added some of Frederick’s music to the bottom of the script page for this episode, click the link in the description. The script and citations for this episode and all other episodes can be found at https://18thcentury.home.blog that’s 1, 8, t h, century dot home dot blog. Type the numbers don’t spell them. If you’d like to support the show, please share it and leave a review. I’ve been your host Cj, and thank you for listening to this episode of the 18th Century Podcast.

CITATIONS

Anderson, Matthew Smith. “Frederick II.” Encyclopædia Britannica, Encyclopædia Britannica, Inc., 7 June 2019, http://www.britannica.com/biography/Frederick-II-king-of-Prussia.

Biography.com Editors. “Frederick II.” Biography.com, A&E Networks Television, 17 Apr. 2019, http://www.biography.com/political-figure/frederick-ii.

“Frederick II of Prussia.” Frederick II of Prussia – New World Encyclopedia, 10 May 2017, http://www.newworldencyclopedia.org/entry/Frederick_II_of_Prussia.

Editors, History.com. “Frederick II.” History.com, A&E Television Networks, 9 Nov. 2009, http://www.history.com/topics/germany/frederick-ii-prussia.

Slaughter, Jamie. “Frederick the Great.” George Washington’s Mount Vernon, http://www.mountvernon.org/library/digitalhistory/digital-encyclopedia/article/frederick-the-great/.

Smee, Taryn. “King Frederick the Great Was a Runaway Teen.” The Vintage News, 25 Aug. 2018, http://www.thevintagenews.com/2018/08/25/frederick-the-great/.