18th Century Podcast: Episode 28 Some Books

Listen here: https://anchor.fm/cj123/episodes/18th-Century-Podcast-Episode-28-Some-Books-eahs9p/a-a1cq029

Summary

In this episode of The 18th Century Podcast, I discuss some of the books I own that are related to the 18th Century. This is an Unscripted episode.

Transcript

Coming at some point…

List of books

  • George Washington’s Secret Six: The Spy Ring That Saved The American Revolution, By: Brian Kilmeade and Don Yeager
  • First Entrepreneur: How George Washington Built His–and the Nation’s–Prosperity, By: Edward G. Lengel
  • Two Treatises of Government and A Letter Concerning Toleration, By: John Locke, Editor: Ian Shapiro, Contributors: John Dunn, Ruth W. Grant, Ian Shapiro
  • A New Manual, And Platoon Exercise: With An Explanation. By: Adjutant General Edward Harvey
  • The First American Cookbook, A Facsimile of “American Cookery,” 1796, By: Amelia Simmons
  • The Art Of Cookery Made Plain And Easy, By: Mrs. Glasse, Intorduction and with modern Improvements by: Karen Hess
  • The Autobiography of Thomas Jefferson, 1743-1790, By: Thomas Jefferson, Editor: Paul Leicester Ford, Introduction by: Michael Zuckerman
  • The Jefferson Bible, Arranged by: Thomas Jefferson
  • Paine Collected Writings, By: Thomas Paine
  • The Art Of Procuring Pleasant Dreams, By: Benjamin Franklin
  • Book Of Virtues, By: Benjamin Franklin
  • The Autobiography Of Benjamin Franklin, By: Benjamin Franklin, Prepared and annotated with introduction by editors of: The Papers Of Benjamin Franklin, Foreword by: Edmund S. Morgan

18th Century Podcast: Episode 25 Christmas

18th Century Christmas

Listen here: https://anchor.fm/cj123/episodes/18th-Century-Podcast-Episode-25-Christmas-e9gtf5/a-a15mguc

Summary

In this episode of the 18th Century Podcast, I discuss what Christmas was like during the 18th Century. Most of what is discussed in this episode focuses on the English and Colonial traditions, but a couple others are mentioned as well. This will be the last 18th Century Podcast episode of 2019. The show will resume in January of 2020. I do not know the exact date as of yet, but it will be a Saturday. I wish you all a Merry Christmas, Happy Holidays, and a Happy New Year.

Script

INTRO

Welcome back to the 18th Century Podcast. I am your host, Cj. In today’s episode, we’ll be discussing Christmas during the 18th Century. The main focus will be on the British and the Americas for Christmas, but I may try to delve into a few other Countries’ traditions too. If you’d like to read the script for this episode and its citations, go to 18thcentury.home.blog that’s 1, 8, t h, century dot home dot blog. Type the numbers don’t spell them. Alright, let’s get right into it!

PART 1 HISTORY

18th Century Christmas was similar to modern 21st in some ways, and others, very different. Starting with the Colonies. I’m going to cheat again here and jump back to the 17th Century. For the most part, the Colonists were Protestants. Many of which in the 17th Century New England was a mixture of Puritans among a few other Protestant groups. In these early days, they frowned upon the celebration of Christmas, and in some areas, even outlawed it. For example, in Massachusettes during the year 1659, the General Court forbade the celebration of Christmas. If someone was caught celebrating, they would suffer a fine of five shillings per offense. Around the same time, the Assembly of Connecticut also prohibited the celebration of Christmas and Christmas related material, such as the Book of Common Prayer. Their view at the time was that Christmas was too close to Pagan ceremonies, thus it was greatly frowned upon. This would continue into the 18th Century, though as time went on, attitudes relaxed a little. Many denominations still didn’t celebrate though. For example, the Quakers would treat Christmas during the 18th Century just like any other day. Presbyterians didn’t pay it much mind, but they saw their congregation attend other churches on Christmas, so they eventually picked up the practice as well. Christmas was more celebrated by denominations such as Roman Catholics, Lutherans, Anglicans, and a couple of others. If you’d like to get a better geographic picture of where Christmas was celebrated it was more in New York, Pennsylvania, Maryland, and the Southern Colonies. Now, if we hop over to Europe, we see Christmas celebrated more. Festivities were held in Great Britain and most of the rest of Europe too. During the 18th Century, we’ll see the development of some Christmas Carrolls, Hymns, and early versions of Christmas Cards. I’ll be going over these and a few other things related to Christmas as we go further into this episode. But I think we should first discuss how long the Christmas celebration really was.

PART 2 Christmas Time

Christmas in modern times is typically celebrated on two days, December 24th and December 25th. Unless you’re an Orthodox Christian, then Christmas is celebrated on January 7th. Yet in the 18th Century focusing on Western Christianity, the Christmas season could last between 12 to 40 days long. December 25th would still mark Christmas day. Now the next days going forward would depend on your denomination if you would celebrate them or not. So, December 26th marked Saint Stephens Day. Then, December 27th marked Saint John the Evangelist’s Day. December 28th would mark Holy Innocents day. This would go on until January 1st which would mark the Circumcision of Jesus. On January 1st it would end with the Feast of the Circumcision. Between December 25th and January 1st, this was referred to as the octave week, since it was an 8 day-long celebration. Then going forward to January 6th, we have the Epiphany of Jesus which was celebrated with the Feast of the Epiphany. Thus this would mark the 12 days of Christmas. So, where do the 40 days come from then? February 2nd marked the Purification of the Virgin Mary, which was also celebrated with a feast. Here’s an interesting tidbit I found as well, on December 27th, which was Saint John the Evangelist’s day, it was especially celebrated by the Free Masons. During the 18th Century, there were considered 2 patron Saints of the Free Masons. The first being Saint John the Evangelist, and the second being Saint John the Baptist. The Masons would celebrate in their towns or villages with special activities and sometimes dressed in their full garb. For example in Virginia, the Masons would hold a procession from their lodge to their local church. The Masons at the time would then hold a special sermon that may have invoked feelings of brotherhood, love, and unity. Afterward, they would have attended a ball and supper with their wives and friends. One of their members would have been selected to organize the event which would have taken place either in a local tavern or someone’s home. Now, were going to take a short break and when we come back, we’ll take a look at some of the traditions and customs that made up an 18th Century Christmas. We’ll be right back.

PART 3 CHRISTMAS FOOD

Welcome back. We’ll begin the second half of today’s episode by discussing Christmas foods of the 18th Century. Due to improved agriculture, Christmas foods differed from the past few centuries. Some foods would come into favor, and others would fall out of favor. Roasts and fowl were common meats seen at the Christmas table. Yet as the years dragged on and especially in the Colonies, turkey became the main meat at Christmas. In England, mince pies were popular and had been popular for a couple of centuries. They were first made with minced meat, but as time went on they were made with dried fruit and spices instead. Other popular foods from the time which you might have found at the Christmas table were cheeses, soups, duck, geese, and pudding. There would also be some variation based upon where you lived during the time. For drinks, alcoholic punches were popular along with wine and brandy. One more thing I want to mention here is Twelfth Night Cake. This would have been a very large cake. To give you an estimate on size, if your Twelfth Night Cake weighed five pounds, that was on the light side of things. Townsends did an excellent video on how to make a Twelfth Night Cake, and I will post their video on the blog. I highly recommend watching it. One tradition surrounding the cake was that while it was being made, a bean or perhaps a coin was placed into the mixture. If you were the lucky soul to get the bean or coin in your slice you were regarded as the King for the night. It all went along with a festive attitude. 

PART 4 CHRISTMAS CUSTOMS AND TRADITIONS

One modern conception of Christmas is the focus around family and children. However, children played a lesser part in 18th Century Christmas celebrations. The Christmas Parties which would occur later in the day were reserved typically for adults only. At Christmas Parties, games were prevalent too. Certain card games would have been played, along with other games such as Hunt the Slipper, blind man’s bluff, and shoe the wild mare. Stories were told, Carolling was to be had, and dances were common. Mix the games with an assortment of food and alcohol, and the time was very merry. Decorations were common in churches. There was a practice called, “sticking of the Church” during the period where green boughs were placed in the Church on Christmas Eve. From the Church roof, walls, and pillars, garlands of holly, mistletoe, ivy, and the like were hung. The pews and pulpit were also decorated with garlands as well. Herbs were placed throughout the Church to give it a pleasant holiday scent. People’s homes were also decorated in a similar fashion. Though the amount of decoration was based upon what you could afford given your social standing in society. Gift giving was something we today would have in common with the 18th Century celebration. Small gifts were given to children such as little books, or small amounts of candy. Children would not give gifts to their parents or other important adults in their life. One tradition from Amsterdam was that St. Nicholas would fill the wooden shoes of children with fruit or perhaps candy. Gifts were exchanged among adult peers as well. It was also common for the wealthy to bestow gifts to those they employed. We also see the beginnings of Christmas Cards. Though they weren’t exactly cards. They were called, Christmas Pieces, and they were pre-printed with holiday-themed borders and they were written by schoolboys. These Christmas Pieces were only popular in large cities such as London. Now one of the largest symbols of Christmas in modern times is perhaps, the Christmas tree. Though in the 18th Century, the Christmas tree was largely reserved to the Germans. The first recorded Christmas tree in England was in the year 1800, which is the cut off for this podcast. Though it was brought forth under King George III’s wife, Queen Charlotte.

PART 5 CHRISTMAS CAROLS AND OTHER SONGS

For the last section of this episode, we’ll discuss Christmas Carols along with other holiday songs and music. I want to start off by saying, they were very popular. One popular hymn, Joy to the World, was written in 1719, though the tune was different than what we know it to be today. A man named Isaac Watts was the author and he based, Joy to the World, on Psalm 98. Watts didn’t create a tune for the hymn and he sorta left it up to interpretation. Another carol which may have been sung was, Hark the Herald Angels Sing. This hymn was first published in 1739, by a man named Charles Wesley. Though Wesley’s original writing of the carol was a bit different than our modern version. Instead of, “Hark the Herald Angels Sing” it was, “Hark! How All the Welkin Rings.” The word, “Welkin” was a word that meant, “vault of heaven.” Though the change of lyric occurred in 1753 when the evangelist George Whitefield, thought that the word, “Welkin” might confuse some people, so he made the change and added it to his anthology of hymns. Again, we don’t know exactly how these carols were meant to be sung, and even during the 18th Century, there was variation. One carol that we probably would recognize though in entirety is Deck the Halls. Though it should be noted that Deck the Halls is the secular version of a Welsh hymn. People would sing out these and many other carols to celebrate the holiday. Carols would have been sung in church and at the home, in private with family, and at parties. Singing Christmas Carols was very popular.

OUTRO

This brings us to the end of this 18th Century Podcast episode, and it’s the last episode of the year. Yes, dear listener, I will be taking a break for the holiday season. The podcast will be returning sometime in January. I don’t know the exact date, but I will continue with the Saturday uploads once the podcast returns. I wish you all a Merry Christmas, Happy Holidays, and a Happy New Year. The script and citations for this episode and all other episodes can be found at 18thcentury.home.blog that’s 1, 8, t h, century dot home dot blog. Type the numbers don’t spell them. If you’d like to support the show, please share it and leave a review. I’ve been your host Cj, and thank you for listening to this episode of the 18th Century Podcast.

CITATIONS

DeSimone, David. “Traditions – Another Look at Christmas in the Eighteenth Century.” Traditions – Another Look at Christmas in the Eighteenth Century : The Colonial Williamsburg Official History Site, 1995, https://www.history.org/almanack/life/christmas/hist_anotherlook.cfm.

Powers, Emma L. “Traditions – Christmas Customs.” Traditions – Christmas Customs : The Colonial Williamsburg Official History Site, 1995, https://www.history.org/almanack/life/christmas/hist_customs.cfm.

Early Modern England. “Georgian Christmas: An Eighteenth Century Celebration.” Early Modern England, 22 Dec. 2013, http://www.earlymodernengland.com/2013/12/georgian-christmas-an-eighteenth-century-celebration/.

Carroll, Heather. “Your Guide to an 18th Century Christmas.” The Duchess of Devonshire’s Gossip Guide to the 18th Century, 21 Dec. 2009, http://georgianaduchessofdevonshire.blogspot.com/2009/12/your-guide-to-18th-century-christmas.html.

“Colonial Williamsburg.” Colonial Williamsburg, https://www.history.org/almanack/life/christmas/graphics/hist_customimage.jpg.

18th Century Podcast: Episode 7 Games & Gambling

Listen here: https://anchor.fm/cj123/episodes/18th-Century-Podcast-Episode-7-Games–Gambling-e4jt59/a-aiono7

Summary

In this episode We’ll be taking a look at games and gambling during the 18th Century. Many games they played in the 18th Century are still played today, but some have fallen out of fashion. Gambling was somewhat looked down upon, yet it was still very popular during the time. This was very interesting to research and I hope you enjoy this episode.

Script

INTRO

Welcome back to the 18th Century Podcast, I’m your host Cj. In today’s episode, we’ll take a step back from the weaponry and warfare of the time and look at something a little more lighthearted depending upon your view, games, and gambling during the 18th Century. If you’d like to read the script for this episode and its citations, go to https://18thcentury.home.blog that’s 1, 8, t h, century dot home dot blog. Type the numbers don’t spell them. The first half of the show today will be about the games, which will include board and card games, but I’ll also throw in a section for sports too, and the second half will be about gambling. Alright, let’s get into it!

PART 1 GAMES

I think it’s safe to say games have been popular throughout most of human history. The 18th Century is no exception. You would find people playing games very familiar to us such as Chess, Backgammon, a verity of Card Games, also Checkers but at the time it was referred to as Draughts. Another game which you might have heard of was Nine Men’s Morris. If you play video games, you may have come across Nine Men’s Morris in the game Assassins Creed 3. One children’s game which we still play today is Horseshoes. Though I would say it was more popular back in the 18th Century rather than the 21st Century. A popular card game of the time was Whist. You could find the game of Whist being played at upper society. Now unlike how I was just rattling off games to start this segment, I’m going to explain how to Whist as best as I can, so you can try it at home if you’d like. To play this game you’ll need a standard 52 card deck, and four players. The game is played in teams of two. Aces are high in this game. The person across from you is your teammate. If you’d like you could choose your own partner, or let the cards decide. If you’d like for the cards to decide your partner, cut the cards and have each player draw a card. The two highest cards will be paired together. Start off by having a dealer shuffle the cards. Once the shuffle is complete, the player to his right will cut the cards. After which the dealer will distribute the cards to his or her left going clockwise facedown. Each player should receive 13 cards. When the dealer comes to the last card, which he would deal to himself, the dealer turns over the last card for everyone to see. What every the suit of the card is, becomes what is known as the trump. After everyone has seen the card, the dealer places it in his hand. Each round of play is called a trick. Play occurs clockwise, and the person to the dealers left lays the first card. Continuing clockwise, each player lays one card of the same suit as the first card played. Whoever played the highest card, wins the trick. If you do not have a card matching the suit played, only then can you play a card of a different suit. However, if you play a card which was the trump’s suit, and no other player played a trump, then you would win the trick. In the event that two or more players play a card from the trump suit, the trick would go to the highest valued trump card. After all thirteen tricks of the deck are played, the team with the most number of combined tricks, scores one point. You can use a token or a chip to keep track of points. Now the dealer would repeat the shuffle and thirteen tricks would be played once more. Before the game begins, have the players select a certain number of points for a team to win the game. For example, the winning score could be, 5 points, 7 points, or whatever score your heart desires. There are a couple of additional rules which you should be aware of, and after I provide them, I’ll run through two tricks just to give the gist of the game. There are two additional ways to change the score of the game. The first way is to receive honor points. If you and your teammate both have a combination of the Jack, Queen, King, and Ace of the trump suit, you would call honors before the play of the next hand. If you and your teammate have three of the four cards, you receive two points, and if you have all four, you receive four points. The final thing which you should be aware of is, Revokes. Let’s say one of your opponents has played the wrong suit and they still have cards for the suit played if you or your teammate notices this and it’s not corrected by the end of the trick, you call Revoke, at that point one of two things happens, you could either add three points to your score, or remove three points from theirs. Let’s run through two sample hands. The trump suit is hearts. The first player plays a Jack of Clubs, then as you go around, what’s played is King of Clubs, two of Clubs, six of Clubs. The person who played the King of Clubs would win the trick and set the played cars aside. Then the winner would start the next trick. Let’s say they played the eight of spades, then going around the ten of spades is played, then the four of hearts, and then the seven of spades. The person who played the four of hearts would win since they played a card from the trump suit, so long as they didn’t have any spades to play. That’s how you play Whist. Long winded I know. If you listened to this on the podcast I highly encourage you to go to the link in the episode description and read the script to review the rules of the game for when you play. There’s one more thing I’d like to mention about these types of games in the 18th Century, and that’s Game Tables. Compared to modern game tables, the game tables of the 18th Century were quite different. There were multiple layers to these tables. They would be extended by being folded out to play games such as chess, cards, or even backgammon. Each layer of such a table was specifically designed for certain games. Such tables could be found across Europe and in parts of the Americas. When I went on my trip to Virginia I saw a few tables specifically designed for games, and it was quite interesting. From what I remember typically these kinds of tables would be used when you’d have guests over, or if you were hosting somebody. It’s interesting how compact they could be. If memory serves me correctly, they could be folded up and placed in a trunk for travel too. There are many games which carried over from the 18th Century, but Sports is another story.

PART 2: SPORTS

How we view sports today, and how sports were viewed in the 18th Century were quite similar in some instances, and quite different in others. If you’re from the United States or if you love horse racing, you’re probably heard of the Kentucky Derby. No, they did not have the Kentucky Derby in the 18th Century, but horse racing was popular in England and the Colonies. During the 18th Century, we could find wealthy Aristocrats breeding horses specifically for racing. Boxing was starting to come more into form during the 18th Century as well. As one could imagine, this was a sport more reserved for the lower classes of society at the time. Boxing didn’t have the modern rules of today, but the roots of them can be seen in parts of the 18th Century. One sport I was surprised to learn about was that they had bowling. Yes, bowling was in the 18th Century and turns out its origins date back earlier. We could find fishing clubs in the Americas during the early half of the Century. Though sport fishing was being popularized in England the Century prior. One of the most synonymous sports with the 18th Century would probably be fox hunting. It could be said it was most popular among the upper classes in England, but it also caught on in the Americas for a time. The basic overview of a fox hunt is as follows, horseback riders follow their hounds as the dogs hunt down a fox. In the Americas, the fox hunting season began in the Fall. Men such as George Washington participated. I’ll delve into this topic more in an episode dedicated to hunting and fishing during the 18th Century. Another modern sport, but with different rules, you could find is Tennis. Tennis would be played across Europe in countries such as England or France for example. The sport was played by both men and women. It was at its height in popularity during the middle of the Century. If a player got good at Tennis, they could gain notoriety and a certain level of fame along with some decent pay. Now, I’m going to take a short break, and when I come back, we’ll get into a very interesting topic for the time, gambling.

PART 3 GAMBLING

Welcome back. For our final section today, let’s discuss gambling. I’ll jump right into it. For the lower classes gambling could be found at places like taverns or coffeehouses. In some taverns cockfights were popular. This would be were two chickens would fight either to the death or until one of them could go no further. The spectators would bet on the outcome. Gambling could have also occurred over boxing matches as mentioned earlier. Other tavern games were most likely gambled upon as well. Such as some card or dice games. During the 18th Century, we start to see an expansion of casinos. At the beginning of the Century, many places had outlawed gambling, but as time marched on, these sorts of laws would be revoked. In 1762 Spa, Belgium the second oldest casino opened its doors. The Redoute casino in Belgium is still open to this day, but it operates under a different name. During the 1770s, two additional casinos opened in Europe. One of which was in France, and another in Belgium. One of the classic casino games, roulette, can find it’s more modern origins in the late 1790s. It wasn’t how we would picture the wheel today, but more or less, this is when the modern game got started. During the 1790s in France, there was a boom in gambling. Though gambling had been popular earlier in the Century for France. Under the reign of King Louis XV who reigned officially from 1723 until his death in 1774, gambling found a small home at Salons. A Salon was very different from the modern place where women get their hair cut. Back in 18th Century France, it was a place for often the nobility to come and have intellectual discussions. For the wealthy French, gambling was an outlet to flaunt their wealth. What’s ironic about flaunting their wealth gambling away their money was this, they did not like people who gloated. You could say it was viewed in poor taste. Gambling in Paris was luxury. Now crossing the channel and heading over to England there was a slightly different approach to gambling and some hypocrisy. The English loved to bet. If there was a conflict of any sort whether it be backgammon or a battle, there probably was a bet at some point. Here’s where the hypocrisy came in, in London gambling was being pushed out of traditional places such as taverns and coffeehouses. See the conflict in attitude? But then special gambling houses or clubs would be opened instead, I guess it works itself out in the end. The famous John Montagu, Earl of Sandwich, opened one such establishment called, White’s. If the name John Montagu, Earl of Sandwich, sounds familiar it’s because he was said to have invented the delicious food we know today. Again, these casinos were more geared towards the wealthy and the nobility, the same as in France. Moving forward to the British Colonies in the Americas, gambling was very popular. However, casinos didn’t open, due to the fact that there wasn’t a large enough base of people yet to support them. Gambling occurred in the American Revolution in both Militaries. George Washington and some British Officers both had complaints in turn about their men gambling. The attitude was very mixed in the 18th Century. Gambling was somewhat looked down upon, but at the same time, it was very popular.

Outro


This brings us to the end on our dive into Games & Gambling during the 18th Century. I found this a fascinating topic to research. The script and citations for this episode and all other episodes can be found at https://18thcentury.home.blog that’s 1, 8, t h, century dot home dot blog. Type the numbers don’t spell them. If you’d like to support the show, please share it and leave a review. I’ve been your host Cj, and thank you for listening to this episode of the 18th Century Podcast.

CITATIONS

Grace, Maria. “A Salon Guest… Toys and Games of the Long 18th Century.” A Salon Guest… Toys and Games of the Long 18th Century, 16 Jan. 2014, http://www.madamegilflurt.com/2014/01/toys-and-games-of-long-18th-century.html.

Smith, Cynthia. “Children’s Games in the 18th Century.” Synonym, 3 Oct. 2017, classroom.synonym.com/childrens-games-in-the-18th-century-13583117.html.

Walton, Geri. “Whist in the Georgian and Regency Eras.” Geri Walton, 30 May 2019, http://www.geriwalton.com/georgian-and-regency-whis/.

“Eighteenth Century Resources.” Whist – Eighteenth Century Resources, http://www.eighteenthcentury.net/whist.

“Game Table.” Metmuseum.org, http://www.metmuseum.org/art/collection/search/232203.

“1754-1783: Sports and Recreation: Overview.” American Eras. . Encyclopedia.com. 11 Jul. 2019 https://www.encyclopedia.com.

Smucker, Philip G. “Foxhunting.” George Washington’s Mount Vernon, http://www.mountvernon.org/george-washington/facts/athleticism/foxhunting/.

Murden, Sarah. “Anyone for 18th Century Tennis?” All Things Georgian, 3 July 2018, georgianera.wordpress.com/2018/02/20/anyone-for-18th-century-tennis/.

Guy, History. “The History of Casinos in Europe.” The History Guy: 25 June 2016, historyguy.com/history_casinos_in_europe.html.

Britannica, The Editors of Encyclopaedia. “Louis XV.” Encyclopædia Britannica, Encyclopædia Britannica, Inc., 6 May 2019, http://www.britannica.com/biography/Louis-XV.

“Salons.” Europe, 1450 to 1789: Encyclopedia of the Early Modern World. . Encyclopedia.com. 12 Jul. 2019 https://www.encyclopedia.com.

Portner, Jessica. “Paris Gamblers: Gaming in 18th-Century France.” The Getty Iris, 27 June 2017, blogs.getty.edu/iris/paris-gamblers-gaming-in-18th-century-france/.

Crews, Ed. “Gambling.” Gambling : The Colonial Williamsburg Official History & Citizenship Site, http://www.history.org/Foundation/journal/Autumn08/gamble.cfm.

18th Century Podcast: Episode 1 Introduction

Listen here: https://anchor.fm/cj123/episodes/18th-Century-Podcast-Episode-1-Introduction-e4bfnv/a-ah528d

Welcome to the 18th Century Podcast, I’m your host Cj. If you’d like to read the script for this episode and its citations, go to https://18thcentury.home.blog that’s 1, 8, t h, century dot home dot blog. Type the numbers don’t spell them. As you probably can tell this is merely an introduction episode and I’m going to lay the foundation for this podcast. But I want to give you a little background about why I’m doing this. You see, I love history. Ever since I was a kid, I’ve loved history. There are many times and places I’ve loved, and being from America, the founding period has always captured my interest. Recently I was lucky enough to go on a trip to Virginia to see places like Geroge Washington’s home at Mount Vernon, Thomas Jefferson’s home at Monticello, and Colonial Williamsburg, among other places too. The American War for Independence, the French Revolution, the Age of Enlightenment, and many other wars, people, and movements have fascinated me. I want to learn more about this time period and the people who inhabited it. So you dear listener, I invite you to come along with me as we learn about the 18th Century together. Typical episodes will be about 15-30 minutes long. This introductory episode will be shorter than 15 minutes. Unless its bonus material, expect an average episode to run for 15-30 minutes. My goal is to make this a weekly show. I just want to give you a quick note about the next few episodes, I prerecorded them and, I said transcript but I should have said script which can be read by clicking the link in the description. I was incorrect in saying that, so when you hear me say transcript in the next three episodes, just think script instead, my apologies. I plan on covering just about anything related to this time period, from people to places, from firearms to wars, from cooking to clothing, from games to hunting. I think you get the idea. Many of the first few episodes will lean on the shorter side and closer to the 15-minute mark. As the series progresses I plan to do more deep dives, but for the first few episodes, I will do general overviews of topics. So come along and learn with me about the fascinating time which is the 18th Century!