18th Century Podcast Episode 21 Spycraft

Execution of Nathan Hale

Listen here: https://anchor.fm/cj123/episodes/18th-Century-Podcast-Episode-21-Spycraft-e86oi3/a-auf07g

Summary

In today’s episode, we’ll be going over spycraft in the 18th Century. We’ll cover some techniques spies would use to conceal their messages, and some notable spies from the 18th Century like Nathan Hale. We’ll also discuss some spy activity during Benjamin Franklin’s time in Paris. You don’t want to miss this one!

Script

INTRO

Welcome back to the 18th Century Podcast. I am your host, Cj. In today’s episode, we’ll be going over spycraft in the 18th Century. If you’d like to read the script for this episode and its citations, go to 18thcentury.home.blog that’s 1, 8, t h, century dot home dot blog. Type the numbers don’t spell them. Let’s kick things off by talking about a general overview of spycraft in the 18th Century.

PART 1 SPYCRAFT

Robert Townsend, Culper Spy Ring

Spying was frowned upon in the 18th Century. It could lead to a death sentence. There was a view that spying was ungentlemanly. It was an activity that was used but frowned upon. Though States may not openly admit that they used spies, spies were vital in times of war. There were no central intelligence organizations like there are today, but agents or rings were formed when necessary. Perhaps the most famous spy ring in the 18th Century was the Culper Spy Ring, which I did read a few of their letters, however poorly, a couple of episodes ago. I’d recommend checking out the blog post for that episode so you can read the letters yourself. I won’t be going into the Culper Ring today, as that will be a future episode in and of itself. Though spies were used, it was more common for a military to gain intelligence from local sources about their enemy. This could be through local newspapers, rumors, or gossip. People like to talk and information travels. But between spies, they would communicate mainly through letters and coded messages. Ciphers were a popular method of concealing information. Books were sometimes written to decipher the messages. These books would have typically been within the ring only. Another method which also dates back centuries was invisible ink. For example, during the American Revolution, an invisible ink was made by mixing ferrous sulfate and water. The spy would write the hidden message between lines of a letter and then pass it off. To read the message heat or another chemical could be applied. One such chemical which could bring forth the message was sodium carbonate. Now, a British method of transferring information, which could have been used by other States as well, was hidden messages. Hidden messages would be written on small pieces of paper and concealed in an object, which a courier could transfer. One method which I have seen before but I forgot about was masked messages. A masked message was when a message would be concealed in a letter that only could be read if a specially designed shaped template was placed over the letter. Spies have been used for centuries before and centuries after, but I think it’s time we take a look into a small story of spies in France during the second half of the 1770s. 

PART 2 SPIES NESTLED IN PARIS 

Benjamin Franklin in Paris with coon skin cap

This section will be covering part of the American Revolution, and I know I’ve talked about doing my American Revolution series on the podcast for a few episodes. It’s coming… eventually. But I do want to share a small tale concerning spies and Paris during this period. Our tale begins in 1776 when the new Congress of the United States sends Benjamin Franklin to France as a diplomat. His mission is to gain French support for the American Cause. I think it goes without saying how famous Benjamin Franklin was in Paris. The French loved him, and I’ll dive deeper into this when I do a bio on Benjamin Franklin. However, there were still some under the table dealings Franklin did while in France. Franklin had amassed a connection of friends in France and Agents working under him. Franklin would launch a series of schemes while also conducting diplomacy. One such instance was a successful piece of propaganda against the British on their turf. One ploy of propaganda was giving false newspaper stories of Britain’s Native American allies which stipulated that the Natives were committing horrendous acts on the frontier. The ploy would pay off as it caused a further division in Parliament. Franklin’s agents would amass a bounty of British Naval movements. I think this goes without saying how well connected he truly was. The British Ambassador to France was quoted as saying about Franklin, quote, “veteran of mischief,” unquote. Franklin was clever, but one thing he never found out during his time in Paris, was that his then Secretary, Edward Bancroft, was an agent for the British. Edward would write the intelligence on Franklin in invisible ink, then he would leave it at a dead drop where Paul Wentworth, the man in charge of British espionage in Paris, would pick it up. The information gathered by Edward would successfully make it’s way to the direct hands of King George III. However, the information collected on Franklin was mostly in vain. King George III, for the most part, dismissed the information collected. Franklin did come to suspect there was a mole in his midst and he would on occasion, send false information as a way to trap the British Agent. He never did figure out it was his own Secretary. Now, the French had their very own well-connected spy ring in their Capitol. The French would spy on citizens and foreigners alike. The French agents would gather their information through a plethora of ways, among which were, gossip, and pillow talk after relations. It goes without saying, the French had spies placed on Franklin. Franklin, of course, was aware he was being watched. He knew both about the British and the French, though he may not have known the exact identity of all the spies placed on him. After the Americans claimed victory of the Battle of Saratoga, the British were considering to find a way to reconcile with the Americans. Franklin became aware of this and hatched a plan which would help encourage the French to support the American cause. Though the French were not in the conflict as of yet, a prolonged conflict could have benefited the French over their most hated adversary, the British. Franklin pretended he was interested in talking with the British. Possibly, he implied opening a dialogue with them. This was discovered by French agents, and the information was passed along. The French panicked. They hastened for a deal giving support to the Americans. Through careful maneuvering, and playing the agents on him, Franklin’s plan was realized. Now, we’re going to take a short break, and when we come back for the second half of this episode, we’re going to take a look at some notable spies in the 18th Century. Don’t go away.

PART 3 PROMINENT SPIES

Nathan Hale

Welcome back. We’ll continue the second half of today’s show discussing some of the most prominent spies in the 18th Century. I’m going to start this off with one of the most famous spies in the 18th Century Nathan Hale. Nathan Hale was a graduate of Yale and a schoolteacher from Connecticut. When the American War for Independence broke out Nathan joined the Connecticut regiment in 1775. He would gain the rank of Captain. During the early phases of the War, Washington needed intelligence on the British. Young Nathan volunteered to go and spy on their adversary on September 10th, 1776. He would disguise himself as a Dutch Schoolmaster and sneak past British lines on Long Island. Hale would spend the next few days collecting intelligence on British troop movements. On September 21st, Hale attempted to cross back to American lines, but he was captured by the British. Hale would be interrogated by British General William Howe. General Howe would discover incriminating documents on Hale’s person. General Howe ordered the execution of Hale for the following morning. Nathan Hale would receive no trail. The 21-year-old marched to the gallows, and purportedly his final words were, quote, “I only regret that I have but one life to give for my country,” unquote. Hale would go down as one of the most famous spies in 18th Century history, even though he failed his mission and had no training or experience in spycraft.

Charles Théveneau de Morande

Let’s transition to a successful spy, one over in Europe, a French spy named, Charles Théveneau de Morande. I will hence refer to him as Charles. Charles was a lawyer’s son, and he served in the Seven Years War. After the Seven Years War, Charles made his way to Paris where he would indulge himself in Vice. Things would get heated for him and he fled Paris in 1770 to London to avoid being arrested. In London, he would print pamphlets attacking King Louis XV’s mistress. Louis XV was furious with Charles’s activities. He wanted the man extradited or kidnaped if possible, but his attempts bore no fruit. When initial revenge attempts failed, the King decided to attempt another plan. He plotted to turn Charles into a spy, and he sent Pierre-Augustin Caron de Beaumarchais to London to recruit Charles. Pierre-Augustin was in disgrace at the time from losing two court cases in the 1770s. Seeking redemption, Pierre-Augustin traveled to London to recruit Charles. The French Foreign Minister, Charles de Vergennes, also saw our Charles as someone worth investing in. Charles had a knack for uncovering secrets and publishing them in pamphlets, and his outspokenness against the French King would add a layer of protection against British suspicion. During the American War of Independence, Charles kept track of ship movements out of British ports, and very successfully at that. He continued his service spying on the British after the war as well. He would go on and recruit high up engineers to his side. Charles became the editor of a prominent French newspaper in London, Courier de l’Europe. This new position would further give him credence for information gathering. The paper was a massive hit across Europe, but not so much in Parliament. The British Parliament viewed it as a sort of open espionage during the American War of Independence. The allegations that the paper was, in fact, a form of espionage were basically true. The British eventually banned the exportation of the paper. But it’s Naval Officer and Enturepenure, Samuel Swinton, smuggled it out. Samuel was a British spy and used the paper as a means to enter France where he would conduct operations on the Americans and French. All the while Charles was printing hidden messages in paragraphs in the paper which were codded for French intelligence. During the American Revolution, The French helped set up a ring with Charles were he would have multiple couriers in a sort of loose network as not to arouse suspicion. The British did suspect Charles as an agent for France, but they never gathered proof. Charles would remain in Great Britain until 1791 when he made his return to France.

Eva Löwen

Our final spy for today comes from Sweden. Eva Löwen was born in 1743 and the daughter of the Governor-General. Her family was well politically connected. When her father was appointed as the Governor-General, the family moved. At their new home, Eva would meet her future husband Fredrik Ribbing. Fredrik was politically well connected himself and was close to the Royal couple. Eva would find herself in the heart of Swedish politics in the mid-1760s. Eva would become popular in Swedish high society. She was characterized as witty, and admirable, but also renowned for her… escapades in the private company of others. I trust you understand what I’m getting at. She became a lover of the French Ambassador to Sweden, Louis Auguste Le Tonnelier de Breteuil. Gustav III attempted to initiate a relationship with Eva, but she rejected his advances. She had other relations with high ranking men in Swedish society, and this may have gained the interest of the French. In the years before Gustav III’s coup, she was on a list of recipients receiving a pension from the French Government. After Gustav III’s successful coup and coronation of 1772, Eva grew closer with him as a friend and they spent their time in grand conversation. Everything would fall apart with the death of Eva’s husband in 1783. Eva would first move in with Gustaf Macklean, a person she previously had a connection to. Gustav III began to fall out of favor. Eva’s son became a part of an assassination plot to kill King Gustav III. Her son had influence from what was occurring in France at the time. After the assassination of Gustav III, he was sentenced to death, but received a pardon and was expelled from Sweden and stripped of nobility. Eva and Gustaf Macklean accompanied her son first to Paris, and then to Switzerland. Eva and Gustaf would marry in 1796 and moved into a Manor in Sweden. Eva died at home in 1813.

OUTRO

This brings us to the end of this week’s episode. Spies and their history is certainly a fascinating topic. I learned a few things this week which I did not expect, and I hope you did as well. The script and citations for this episode and all other episodes can be found at 18thcentury.home.blog that’s 1, 8, t h, century dot home dot blog. Type the numbers don’t spell them. If you’d like to support the show, please share it and leave a review. I’ve been your host Cj, and thank you for listening to this episode of the 18th Century Podcast.

CITATIONS

“Spy Techniques of the Revolutionary War.” George Washington’s Mount Vernon, https://www.mountvernon.org/george-washington/the-revolutionary-war/spying-and-espionage/spy-techniques-of-the-revolutionary-war/.

Crews, Ed. “Spies and Scouts, Secret Writing, and Sympathetic Citizens.” Spies and Scouts, Secret Writing, and Sympathetic Citizens : The Colonial Williamsburg Official History & Citizenship Site, 2004, https://www.history.org/Foundation/journal/Summer04/spies.cfm.

HistoryExtraAdmin. “18th Century Espionage: the French Spy in London.” HistoryExtra, 10 Oct. 2018, https://www.historyextra.com/period/georgian/18th-century-espionage-the-french-spy-in-london/.

“Nathan Hale Is Executed by the British for Spying.” History.com, A&E Television Networks, 13 Nov. 2009, https://www.history.com/this-day-in-history/patriot-executed-for-spying.

Eva Helena Löwen, http://www.skbl.se/sv/artikel/EvaLowen, Svenskt kvinnobiografiskt lexikon (article by Brita Planck), retrieved 2019-10-25.

18th Century Podcast: Episode 6 British Platoon Exercise 1764

Listen here: https://anchor.fm/cj123/episodes/18th-Century-Podcast-Episode-6-British-Platoon-Exercise-1764-e4afov/a-agvhbh

Summary

I have a special treat for you today! I’ll be reading from, A New Manual, And Platoon Exercise: With An Explanation. It’s a 1764 British Platoon exercise written by Adjutant General, Edward Harvey. I hope to give you a glimpse into the training of British forces during this time period.

Script

INTRO

Welcome back to the 18th Century Podcast, I’m your host Cj. In today’s episode, I have a special treat for you guys. Remember all the way back to episode 1 when I talked about my Virginia trip? Well, when I was at Colonial Williamsburg, I picked up a 1764 British Platoon Exercise Manual written by Adjutant General Edward Harvey. It’s a short little manual, and I’ll be reading it today. I hope this will give you a glimpse at the training of 18th Century Infantry training. When we get into future episodes on certain wars or battles, I hope this episode could provide some context to what the soldiers were doing on commands. The break today will be taken after command 35, and when we come back we’ll get into the last two portions of the manual. If you’d like to read the script for this episode and its citations, go to https://18thcentury.home.blog that’s 1, 8, t h, century dot home dot blog. Type the numbers don’t spell them. Alright guys, let’s get into the manual!

A NEW MANUAL, AND PLATOON EXERCISE: WITH AN EXPLANATION.

OUTRO

I hope this gave you a bit of an insight into the training of a British Platoon in the 18th Century. I do have a treat for you, if you go onto the website, link in the description of this episode, and click on the post for this podcast episode, scroll to the bottom and I’ve placed a video there of someone performing this exercise. I found it off of youtube, and it’s pretty interesting. the script and citations for this episode and all other episodes can be found at https://18thcentury.home.blog that’s 1, 8, t h, century dot home dot blog. Type the numbers don’t spell them. If you’d like to support the show, please share it. I’ve been your host Cj, and thank you for listening to this episode of the 18th Century Podcast.

Citations

Harvey, Edward. A NEW MANUAL, AND PLATOON EXERCISE: WITH AN EXPLANATION.1764.

Bonus! A video of the 1764 British Platoon Exercise!

18TH CENTURY PODCAST: Episode 3 Muskets And Rifles

Listen here: https://anchor.fm/cj123/episodes/18th-Century-Podcast-Episode-3-Muskets-and-Rifles-e44t9e/a-ag2946

Summary

In this episode of the 18th Century Podcast we take a basic overview of 18th Century Muskets and Rifles. I threw in a little bonus segment too. Topics covered in this episode include: The Flintlock Mechanism, Brown Bess Musket, French Charleville Musket, The American Long Rifle, and our Bonus segment.

Script

INTRO

Welcome back to the 18th Century Podcast, I’m your host Cj. Today’s episode will be the foundation for many future episodes. We’ll be going over some of the Muskets and Rifles of the 18th Century. I’ll be going over the basics of the Flintlock mechanism, the Brown Bess Musket, the Charleville Musket, and the Long Rifle. As a bonus, I’ll also be covering the bayonet. Pistols and Artillery will be described at a later episode. If you’d like to read the transcript for this episode and its citations, go to https://18thcentury.home.blog that’s 1, 8, th, century dot home dot blog. Type the numbers don’t spell them. Now that we got that out of the way, let’s get into the Flintlock mechanism!

PART 1: Flintlock Mechanism

I think the most important part of learning about the Flintlock, is to understand where and when it came from. The first real Flintlock has its origins in early 17th Century France. Though there are earlier models. The Flintlock Mechanism would become more popular over earlier models of firearms, such as the matchlock. Personally, out of the early firearms, the Flintlock is my favorite. I haven’t been fortunate enough to fire one yet however. Now I think the best way to describe the mechanism would be to go through a dry run of its operation. Just a quick warning, don’t take my description of this mechanism as instructions on firing it, learn from a real professional. Now, the mechanism begins as being uncocked. The first part would be to put it in a half-cocked position. To do this the hammer of the mechanism, which contains a small piece of flint, would be to a half-cock position. Essentially the hammer would be standing up and you’d hear a click. At this position, you would not be able to fire the weapon yet. Then a small amount of gunpowder would be poured into the pan, after which it would be closed. Then once the weapon is finished being loaded down its muzzle, the hammer would be brought to full-cock. To do this, it would be pulled all the way back, and now the trigger is able to be pulled. Now when the trigger is pulled, the hammer will fly forward and strike the frizzen. The frizzen is the piece of steel which stands once the pan was closed. The flint on the hammer will strike the steel frizzen creating a spark. When the spark drops down into the pan, it ignites the gunpowder resting inside. The ignited gunpowder will light the powder in the barrel of the firearm through a small hole, thus the gun has been fired. It’s a fascinating process, truly. And it’s no wonder that it remained so popular for over a century. There where different variations in the Flintlock firearms, hence different kinds of muskets in the 18th Century. We’ll first go over one of these muskets next, the British Brown Bess Musket.

PART 2: Brown Bess Musket

The Brown Bess Musket was standardized into the British Military in 1730. The Musket is a .75 Caliber Smoothbore Flintlock. Since this firearm was mostly used by the British military, I’ll be discussing it in that context. Before the standardization of the Brown Bess, each regiment’s colonel would obtain firearms for his troops. The barrel of the Brown Bess was 46 inches long. The stock was crafted from walnut wood. It came equipped with a 17-inch long bayonet, but as said before, bayonets will be discussed later in this episode. Though as decades went on, the design of the Brown Bess would change from its 1730 design. For example, the steel ramrod was introduced in 1756, and before that, it was wooden. Then only a year later there was another update. The barrel of the firearm was shortened to two different sizes, 42-inches, and 37-inches. Though the British Military chose to issue the 42-inch barrel, and it was issued to the infantry in 1769. As stated earlier, the firearm was .75 Caliber, the weight of the bullet, however, was approximately one ounce. The .75 Caliber was the standard throughout the Brown Bess’s history. Now, remember the 1768, 42-inch barrel I talked about? That version of the musket was called the Short Land Pattern, and it did make an early appearance in the 1740s, however, it was not initially intended for infantry. The original intent was for the British Dragoons. If you don’t know what a Dragoon is, all you need to know for now is that it was a type of cavalry unit. I find it as an interesting fun fact, that a weapon intended for cavalry, became the standard for the infantry. There was another model which began being issued in 1793, and it was designed by the British East India Company. This model would be called, the India Pattern. This version of the firearm had a shorter, 39-inch barrel. It was also considered to be of poorer quality. The actual name of Brown Bess is not the official name of the musket. It is, however, a nickname and it’s been more commonly referred to as a Brown Bess ever since. The Brown Bess would see action in the Seven Years War and The American Revolution. It remained in use into the 19th Century. Though it is an interesting weapon, now let’s turn our attention to the opposing sides own Musket. The French Charleville Musket.

PART 3: French Charleville Musket

A quick note before I do a deep dive into this musket, it was surprisingly difficult to find information on this musket. Take what I say about this one with a grain of salt, and I encourage you to do your own research on this one. Now then, the French Charleville Musket was initially standardized in 1717. The Musket was a .69 Caliber smoothbore flintlock. I should give a note about a smoothbore barrel. The smoothbore was less accurate than that of a rifle, so you had less of an idea where your musket ball was going to go. Like the Brown Bess, the stock was constructed from walnut. But here’s a difference, the Charleville’s butt was rounded a bit, so it could be used as a club in close quarters. The firearm was also equipped with a bayonet. Then in 1728, the firearm was improved upon it gained three barrel bands to help support the long barrel. You see the Charleville’s barrel was 46 and 3/4 inch long. In 1743, the steel ramrod was standardized. The firearm was then improved upon in 1746 and the 1746 model would be used in the French and Indian War. Then in 1763, the barrel of the Charleville was shortened. The muskets themselves were officially were called the French Infantry Muskets. They became known as the Charleville due to the American use of the firearm. The Charleville was used during the American Revolution. When the French allied themselves with the Americans during the war, a large quantity was shipped under the influence of the Marquis de Lafayette. Again I would encourage you, dear listener, to do some research on this firearm yourself. When I did research on this topic, many of the pages which came up were selling replicas and contained little information on the history of the weapon. My apologies for the shorter section. I’m going to take a short break here, and when I come back, we’ll continue our conversation with the American Long Rifle. Don’t go away.

PART 4: The American Long Rifle

Welcome back to the show, and we’ll be continuing with the American Long Rifle. The American Long Rifle has its origins with Germanic immigrants. The rifles brought over by these immigrants were .45 to .60 Caliber, however as time went on, the rifles in America changed to .40 to .45 Caliber. The models which the immigrants brought were larger and heavier. But yet again as time went on, they became smaller and lighter. Around 1750 the American Rifle was very accurate for its time. The rifle was approximately five to six feet long. Since it was manufactured in many different areas, it received regional names. Perhaps you’ve heard of the Kentucky Long Rifle. On the frontier, these Rifles were primarily used for hunting game and defense. During combat, as stated previously, the British favored the Brown Bess musket, it was quicker to reload, but far less accurate. The American Long Rifle was way more accurate, but it had a slower reload time. Due to its accuracy, it’s easy to deduce that the Riflemen during the American Revolution were essentially snipers. Early on, it was clear that Riflemen would be important to the coming American Revolution. In the Summer of 1775, The Continental Congress established ten companies of riflemen. The positions were filled quickly and Congress had to create two more companies to keep up with volunteers. Though the majority of the Military would consist of infantry using muskets, Riflemen had their fair share of action too. During the battle of Saratoga, Sergeant Timothy Murphy was tasked with sniping a British Brigadier General Simon Fraser. To get a better shot, Sergeant Murphy was perched up in a tree, and visible, approximately 300 yards away from General Fraser. The General was perched on top of his horse, practically a sitting duck. Sergeant Murphy took aim and fired. He missed his target, only grazing the General’s horse. Now it would have taken a while to reload, but Sergeant Murphy was firing no ordinary rifle, no it was a rare double barrel rifle. The Sergeant lined up his second shot and fired… again he grazed the horse. Sergeant Murphy began the process of reloading his rifle, which took about half a minute at best. He lined up his third shot and squeezed the trigger. The bullet flew across the field. And this time, found it’s mark. General Fraser was hit in his gut. When the British General fell on the field, his men broke ranks and retreated. This action would help the Americans gain victory at Saratoga. The American Long Rifle is truly an exciting firearm. Now that I’ve covered the Brown Bess, the Charleville, and the American Long Rifle, I think it’s time we get to our bonus segment, the bayonet.

PART 5: The Bayonet

Getting on with our final segment for today, the Bayonet. The Bayonet has a bit of an interesting history. It originates from 17th Century France. The earliest bayonets were described as having a double edge, and being about a foot long. The early designs would be inserted into the musket’s muzzle. I think it’s obvious enough to say, you’d have a bit of a hard time firing your weapon. This 17th Century design is called a Plug Bayonet. Then during the latter half of the 17th Century, a new type of Bayonet arose. This new Bayonet would also have its origins in France. This newer and improved model would be called, The Socket Bayonet. The difference arises here, with the Plug Bayonet being jammed down the muzzle of the musket, you were unable to fire, but with the Socket Bayonet, it had a 3-4 inch long tube which could be locked onto the muzzle instead of being shoved down it. So, with the Socket Bayonet, it was still possible to fire your musket. Around 1715 the design changed once more, it went from its double edge to a more triangular shape. The triangular shape of the Socket Bayonet is what we would most likely recognize as a bayonet today. The Socket Bayonet was the standard for infantry across Europe and the Americas during the 18th Century. So you would have seen the Bayonet in action during the French and Indian War, The American Revolution, The War of Austrian Succession, or the Great Northern War, and among many other conflicts which will be covered in future episodes.

OUTRO

Alright guys, this brings us to the end of the episode. Like I said at the beginning, the transcript and citations for this episode, and all other episodes can be found at https://18thcentury.home.blog that’s 1, 8, th, century dot home dot blog. Type the numbers don’t spell them. This episode again was just a basic overview of some of the Muskets and Rifles of the 18th Century. I know these first few episodes are a bit on the shorter side, but as this series continues, I have a feeling some of these episodes will start increasing in length. If you’d like to support the show, please share it. I’ve been your host Cj, and thank you for listening to this episode of the 18th Century Podcast.

CITATIONS

Britannica, The Editors of Encyclopaedia. “Flintlock.” Encyclopædia Britannica, Encyclopædia Britannica, Inc., 29 Apr. 2013, http://www.britannica.com/technology/flintlock.

Brain, Marshall. “How Flintlock Guns Work.” HowStuffWorks Science, HowStuffWorks, 28 June 2018, science.howstuffworks.com/flintlock2.htm.

F., Brandon. “How Do You Load a Musket?” YouTube, YouTube, 12 Mar. 2019, http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=YleUgqTFHHQ.

“Brown Bess.” Encyclopedia of the American Revolution: Library of Military History. . Encyclopedia.com. 22 May. 2019 https://www.encyclopedia.com.

“Site Navigation.” Warfare History Network, warfarehistorynetwork.com/daily/military-history/revolutionary-war-weapons-the-brown-bess-musket/.

Hickman, Kennedy. “American Revolution: Brown Bess Musket.” ThoughtCo, ThoughtCo, 2 Jan. 2019, http://www.thoughtco.com/american-revolution-brown-bess-musket-2361240.

“The French Charleville .” French Charleville Musket, web.archive.org/web/20090216063113/http://11thpa.org/charleville.html.
Editor, The. “The Charleville Musket.” The Charleville Musket, 2 Apr. 2013, firearmshistory.blogspot.com/2013/04/the-charleville-musket.html.

“Site Navigation.” Warfare History Network, 10 Oct. 2018, warfarehistorynetwork.com/daily/military-history/revolutionary-war-weapons-the-american-long-rifle/.

“How Did WE Win the Revolution and the Freedom to Invent That Wonderful Institution Called The United States of America? And for That Matter, Just Who Were WE, an Unlikely Crew to Take on the Armed Might of the Greatest Military Power on Earth. Most of Us Were Tradesmen and Farmers, with a Few Trained Soldiers Who Had Served in Colonial Regiments. And the WE Has to Include Our French Friends Who Supplied Us with Arms and Equipment and Manpower without Which We Could Not Have Won.” Revolutionary War – Longrifles, http://www.revolutionarywararchives.org/longrifle.html.

“The American Longrifle.” American Rifleman, 19 June 2013, http://www.americanrifleman.org/articles/2013/6/19/the-american-longrifle/.

Britannica, The Editors of Encyclopaedia. “Bayonet.” Encyclopædia Britannica, Encyclopædia Britannica, Inc., 23 Jan. 2015, http://www.britannica.com/technology/bayonet.

Whittle, John. “History & Evolution of the Bayonet.” Bayonet History, thearmouryonline.co.uk/BayonetHistory.htm.