18th Century Podcast: Episode 28 Some Books

Listen here: https://anchor.fm/cj123/episodes/18th-Century-Podcast-Episode-28-Some-Books-eahs9p/a-a1cq029

Summary

In this episode of The 18th Century Podcast, I discuss some of the books I own that are related to the 18th Century. This is an Unscripted episode.

Transcript

Coming at some point…

List of books

  • George Washington’s Secret Six: The Spy Ring That Saved The American Revolution, By: Brian Kilmeade and Don Yeager
  • First Entrepreneur: How George Washington Built His–and the Nation’s–Prosperity, By: Edward G. Lengel
  • Two Treatises of Government and A Letter Concerning Toleration, By: John Locke, Editor: Ian Shapiro, Contributors: John Dunn, Ruth W. Grant, Ian Shapiro
  • A New Manual, And Platoon Exercise: With An Explanation. By: Adjutant General Edward Harvey
  • The First American Cookbook, A Facsimile of “American Cookery,” 1796, By: Amelia Simmons
  • The Art Of Cookery Made Plain And Easy, By: Mrs. Glasse, Intorduction and with modern Improvements by: Karen Hess
  • The Autobiography of Thomas Jefferson, 1743-1790, By: Thomas Jefferson, Editor: Paul Leicester Ford, Introduction by: Michael Zuckerman
  • The Jefferson Bible, Arranged by: Thomas Jefferson
  • Paine Collected Writings, By: Thomas Paine
  • The Art Of Procuring Pleasant Dreams, By: Benjamin Franklin
  • Book Of Virtues, By: Benjamin Franklin
  • The Autobiography Of Benjamin Franklin, By: Benjamin Franklin, Prepared and annotated with introduction by editors of: The Papers Of Benjamin Franklin, Foreword by: Edmund S. Morgan

18th Century Podcast: Episode 25 Christmas

18th Century Christmas

Listen here: https://anchor.fm/cj123/episodes/18th-Century-Podcast-Episode-25-Christmas-e9gtf5/a-a15mguc

Summary

In this episode of the 18th Century Podcast, I discuss what Christmas was like during the 18th Century. Most of what is discussed in this episode focuses on the English and Colonial traditions, but a couple others are mentioned as well. This will be the last 18th Century Podcast episode of 2019. The show will resume in January of 2020. I do not know the exact date as of yet, but it will be a Saturday. I wish you all a Merry Christmas, Happy Holidays, and a Happy New Year.

Script

INTRO

Welcome back to the 18th Century Podcast. I am your host, Cj. In today’s episode, we’ll be discussing Christmas during the 18th Century. The main focus will be on the British and the Americas for Christmas, but I may try to delve into a few other Countries’ traditions too. If you’d like to read the script for this episode and its citations, go to 18thcentury.home.blog that’s 1, 8, t h, century dot home dot blog. Type the numbers don’t spell them. Alright, let’s get right into it!

PART 1 HISTORY

18th Century Christmas was similar to modern 21st in some ways, and others, very different. Starting with the Colonies. I’m going to cheat again here and jump back to the 17th Century. For the most part, the Colonists were Protestants. Many of which in the 17th Century New England was a mixture of Puritans among a few other Protestant groups. In these early days, they frowned upon the celebration of Christmas, and in some areas, even outlawed it. For example, in Massachusettes during the year 1659, the General Court forbade the celebration of Christmas. If someone was caught celebrating, they would suffer a fine of five shillings per offense. Around the same time, the Assembly of Connecticut also prohibited the celebration of Christmas and Christmas related material, such as the Book of Common Prayer. Their view at the time was that Christmas was too close to Pagan ceremonies, thus it was greatly frowned upon. This would continue into the 18th Century, though as time went on, attitudes relaxed a little. Many denominations still didn’t celebrate though. For example, the Quakers would treat Christmas during the 18th Century just like any other day. Presbyterians didn’t pay it much mind, but they saw their congregation attend other churches on Christmas, so they eventually picked up the practice as well. Christmas was more celebrated by denominations such as Roman Catholics, Lutherans, Anglicans, and a couple of others. If you’d like to get a better geographic picture of where Christmas was celebrated it was more in New York, Pennsylvania, Maryland, and the Southern Colonies. Now, if we hop over to Europe, we see Christmas celebrated more. Festivities were held in Great Britain and most of the rest of Europe too. During the 18th Century, we’ll see the development of some Christmas Carrolls, Hymns, and early versions of Christmas Cards. I’ll be going over these and a few other things related to Christmas as we go further into this episode. But I think we should first discuss how long the Christmas celebration really was.

PART 2 Christmas Time

Christmas in modern times is typically celebrated on two days, December 24th and December 25th. Unless you’re an Orthodox Christian, then Christmas is celebrated on January 7th. Yet in the 18th Century focusing on Western Christianity, the Christmas season could last between 12 to 40 days long. December 25th would still mark Christmas day. Now the next days going forward would depend on your denomination if you would celebrate them or not. So, December 26th marked Saint Stephens Day. Then, December 27th marked Saint John the Evangelist’s Day. December 28th would mark Holy Innocents day. This would go on until January 1st which would mark the Circumcision of Jesus. On January 1st it would end with the Feast of the Circumcision. Between December 25th and January 1st, this was referred to as the octave week, since it was an 8 day-long celebration. Then going forward to January 6th, we have the Epiphany of Jesus which was celebrated with the Feast of the Epiphany. Thus this would mark the 12 days of Christmas. So, where do the 40 days come from then? February 2nd marked the Purification of the Virgin Mary, which was also celebrated with a feast. Here’s an interesting tidbit I found as well, on December 27th, which was Saint John the Evangelist’s day, it was especially celebrated by the Free Masons. During the 18th Century, there were considered 2 patron Saints of the Free Masons. The first being Saint John the Evangelist, and the second being Saint John the Baptist. The Masons would celebrate in their towns or villages with special activities and sometimes dressed in their full garb. For example in Virginia, the Masons would hold a procession from their lodge to their local church. The Masons at the time would then hold a special sermon that may have invoked feelings of brotherhood, love, and unity. Afterward, they would have attended a ball and supper with their wives and friends. One of their members would have been selected to organize the event which would have taken place either in a local tavern or someone’s home. Now, were going to take a short break and when we come back, we’ll take a look at some of the traditions and customs that made up an 18th Century Christmas. We’ll be right back.

PART 3 CHRISTMAS FOOD

Welcome back. We’ll begin the second half of today’s episode by discussing Christmas foods of the 18th Century. Due to improved agriculture, Christmas foods differed from the past few centuries. Some foods would come into favor, and others would fall out of favor. Roasts and fowl were common meats seen at the Christmas table. Yet as the years dragged on and especially in the Colonies, turkey became the main meat at Christmas. In England, mince pies were popular and had been popular for a couple of centuries. They were first made with minced meat, but as time went on they were made with dried fruit and spices instead. Other popular foods from the time which you might have found at the Christmas table were cheeses, soups, duck, geese, and pudding. There would also be some variation based upon where you lived during the time. For drinks, alcoholic punches were popular along with wine and brandy. One more thing I want to mention here is Twelfth Night Cake. This would have been a very large cake. To give you an estimate on size, if your Twelfth Night Cake weighed five pounds, that was on the light side of things. Townsends did an excellent video on how to make a Twelfth Night Cake, and I will post their video on the blog. I highly recommend watching it. One tradition surrounding the cake was that while it was being made, a bean or perhaps a coin was placed into the mixture. If you were the lucky soul to get the bean or coin in your slice you were regarded as the King for the night. It all went along with a festive attitude. 

PART 4 CHRISTMAS CUSTOMS AND TRADITIONS

One modern conception of Christmas is the focus around family and children. However, children played a lesser part in 18th Century Christmas celebrations. The Christmas Parties which would occur later in the day were reserved typically for adults only. At Christmas Parties, games were prevalent too. Certain card games would have been played, along with other games such as Hunt the Slipper, blind man’s bluff, and shoe the wild mare. Stories were told, Carolling was to be had, and dances were common. Mix the games with an assortment of food and alcohol, and the time was very merry. Decorations were common in churches. There was a practice called, “sticking of the Church” during the period where green boughs were placed in the Church on Christmas Eve. From the Church roof, walls, and pillars, garlands of holly, mistletoe, ivy, and the like were hung. The pews and pulpit were also decorated with garlands as well. Herbs were placed throughout the Church to give it a pleasant holiday scent. People’s homes were also decorated in a similar fashion. Though the amount of decoration was based upon what you could afford given your social standing in society. Gift giving was something we today would have in common with the 18th Century celebration. Small gifts were given to children such as little books, or small amounts of candy. Children would not give gifts to their parents or other important adults in their life. One tradition from Amsterdam was that St. Nicholas would fill the wooden shoes of children with fruit or perhaps candy. Gifts were exchanged among adult peers as well. It was also common for the wealthy to bestow gifts to those they employed. We also see the beginnings of Christmas Cards. Though they weren’t exactly cards. They were called, Christmas Pieces, and they were pre-printed with holiday-themed borders and they were written by schoolboys. These Christmas Pieces were only popular in large cities such as London. Now one of the largest symbols of Christmas in modern times is perhaps, the Christmas tree. Though in the 18th Century, the Christmas tree was largely reserved to the Germans. The first recorded Christmas tree in England was in the year 1800, which is the cut off for this podcast. Though it was brought forth under King George III’s wife, Queen Charlotte.

PART 5 CHRISTMAS CAROLS AND OTHER SONGS

For the last section of this episode, we’ll discuss Christmas Carols along with other holiday songs and music. I want to start off by saying, they were very popular. One popular hymn, Joy to the World, was written in 1719, though the tune was different than what we know it to be today. A man named Isaac Watts was the author and he based, Joy to the World, on Psalm 98. Watts didn’t create a tune for the hymn and he sorta left it up to interpretation. Another carol which may have been sung was, Hark the Herald Angels Sing. This hymn was first published in 1739, by a man named Charles Wesley. Though Wesley’s original writing of the carol was a bit different than our modern version. Instead of, “Hark the Herald Angels Sing” it was, “Hark! How All the Welkin Rings.” The word, “Welkin” was a word that meant, “vault of heaven.” Though the change of lyric occurred in 1753 when the evangelist George Whitefield, thought that the word, “Welkin” might confuse some people, so he made the change and added it to his anthology of hymns. Again, we don’t know exactly how these carols were meant to be sung, and even during the 18th Century, there was variation. One carol that we probably would recognize though in entirety is Deck the Halls. Though it should be noted that Deck the Halls is the secular version of a Welsh hymn. People would sing out these and many other carols to celebrate the holiday. Carols would have been sung in church and at the home, in private with family, and at parties. Singing Christmas Carols was very popular.

OUTRO

This brings us to the end of this 18th Century Podcast episode, and it’s the last episode of the year. Yes, dear listener, I will be taking a break for the holiday season. The podcast will be returning sometime in January. I don’t know the exact date, but I will continue with the Saturday uploads once the podcast returns. I wish you all a Merry Christmas, Happy Holidays, and a Happy New Year. The script and citations for this episode and all other episodes can be found at 18thcentury.home.blog that’s 1, 8, t h, century dot home dot blog. Type the numbers don’t spell them. If you’d like to support the show, please share it and leave a review. I’ve been your host Cj, and thank you for listening to this episode of the 18th Century Podcast.

CITATIONS

DeSimone, David. “Traditions – Another Look at Christmas in the Eighteenth Century.” Traditions – Another Look at Christmas in the Eighteenth Century : The Colonial Williamsburg Official History Site, 1995, https://www.history.org/almanack/life/christmas/hist_anotherlook.cfm.

Powers, Emma L. “Traditions – Christmas Customs.” Traditions – Christmas Customs : The Colonial Williamsburg Official History Site, 1995, https://www.history.org/almanack/life/christmas/hist_customs.cfm.

Early Modern England. “Georgian Christmas: An Eighteenth Century Celebration.” Early Modern England, 22 Dec. 2013, http://www.earlymodernengland.com/2013/12/georgian-christmas-an-eighteenth-century-celebration/.

Carroll, Heather. “Your Guide to an 18th Century Christmas.” The Duchess of Devonshire’s Gossip Guide to the 18th Century, 21 Dec. 2009, http://georgianaduchessofdevonshire.blogspot.com/2009/12/your-guide-to-18th-century-christmas.html.

“Colonial Williamsburg.” Colonial Williamsburg, https://www.history.org/almanack/life/christmas/graphics/hist_customimage.jpg.

18th Century Podcast: Episode 23 Cathrine Miniseries Review

Cathrine the Great Miniseries, HBO

Listen here: https://anchor.fm/cj123/episodes/18th-Century-Podcast-Episode-23-Cathrine-Miniseries-Review-e932m2/a-a124vh9

Summary

In this episode of the 18th Century Podcast, I give my thoughts on the miniseries Cathrine the Great. There are some good things to say, and some bad things. This is an unscripted episode this week, and the longest episode in this show’s history so far!

Transcript

Coming at some point

18th Century Podcast: Episode 22 A Letter to a Royal Academy About Farting

Benjamin Franklin at a desk

Listen here: https://anchor.fm/cj123/episodes/18th-Century-Podcast-Episode-22-A-Letter-to-a-Royal-Academy-About-Farting-e90h6u/a-a11j5ob

Summary

In this episode of the 18th Century Podcast, I read an essay Benjamin Franklin wrote about farting in 1781. I think most people forget that people back in the 18th Century were human too, and did have a sense of humor. Benjamin Franklin was known for his humor and I think this lighthearted episode is well needed and deserved. Sit back, relax, and enjoy the soothing sounds of the words of Ben Franklin as he gives his elegant thoughts on farting.

Essay

GENTLEMEN,

I have perused your late mathematical Prize Question, proposed in lieu of one in Natural Philosophy, for the ensuing year, viz. “Une figure quelconque donnee, on demande d’y inscrire le plus grand nombre de fois possible une autre figure plus-petite quelconque, qui est aussi donnee”. I was glad to find by these following Words, “l’Acadeemie a jugee que cette deecouverte, en eetendant les bornes de nos connoissances, ne seroit pas sans UTILITE”, that you esteem Utility an essential Point in your Enquiries, which has not always been the case with all Academies; and I conclude therefore that you have given this Question instead of a philosophical, or as the Learned express it, a physical one, because you could not at the time think of a physical one that promis’d greater Utility.

Permit me then humbly to propose one of that sort for your consideration, and through you, if you approve it, for the serious Enquiry of learned Physicians, Chemists, &c. of this enlightened Age.

It is universally well known, That in digesting our common Food, there is created or produced in the Bowels of human Creatures, a great Quantity of Wind.

That the permitting this Air to escape and mix with the Atmosphere, is usually offensive to the Company, from the fetid Smell that accompanies it.

That all well-bred People therefore, to avoid giving such Offence, forcibly restrain the Efforts of Nature to discharge that Wind.

That so retain’d contrary to Nature, it not only gives frequently great present Pain, but occasions future Diseases, such as habitual Cholics, Ruptures, Tympanies, &c. often destructive of  the Constitution, & sometimes of Life itself.

Were it not for the odiously offensive Smell accompanying such Escapes, polite People would probably be under no more Restraint in discharging such Wind in Company, than they are in spitting, or in blowing their Noses.

My Prize Question therefore should be, To discover some Drug wholesome & not disagreable, to be mix’d with our common Food, or Sauces, that shall render the natural Discharges of Wind from our Bodies, not only inoffensive, but agreable as Perfumes.

That this is not a chimerical Project, and altogether impossible, may appear from these Considerations. That we already have some Knowledge of Means capable of Varying that Smell. He that dines on stale Flesh, especially with much Addition of Onions, shall be able to afford a Stink that no Company can tolerate; while he that has lived for some Time on Vegetables only, shall have that Breath so pure as to be insensible to the most delicate Noses; and if he can manage so as to avoid the Report, he may any where give Vent to his Griefs, unnoticed. But as there are many to whom an entire Vegetable Diet would be inconvenient, and as a little Quick-Lime thrown into a Jakes will correct the amazing Quantity of fetid Air arising from the vast Mass of putrid Matter contain’d in such Places, and render it rather pleasing to the Smell, who knows but that a little Powder of Lime (or some other thing equivalent) taken in our Food, or perhaps a Glass of Limewater drank at Dinner, may have the same Effect on the Air produc’d in and issuing from our Bowels? This is worth the Experiment. Certain it is also that we have the Power of changing by slight Means the Smell of another Discharge, that of our Water. A few Stems of Asparagus eaten, shall give our Urine a disagreable Odour; and a Pill of Turpentine no bigger than a Pea, shall bestow on it the pleasing Smell of Violets. And why should it be thought more impossible in Nature, to find Means of making a Perfume of our Wind than of our Water?

For the Encouragement of this Enquiry, (from the immortal Honour to be reasonably expected by the Inventor) let it be considered of how small Importance to Mankind, or to how small a Part of Mankind have been useful those Discoveries in Science that have heretofore made Philosophers famous. Are there twenty Men in Europe at this Day, the happier, or even the easier, for any Knowledge they have pick’d out of Aristotle? What Comfort can the Vortices of Descartes give to a Man who has Whirlwinds in his Bowels! The Knowledge of Newton’s mutual Attraction of the Particles of Matter, can it afford Ease to him who is rack’d by their mutual Repulsion, and the cruel Distensions it occasions? The Pleasure arising to a few Philosophers, from seeing, a few Times in their Life, the Threads of Light untwisted, and separated by the Newtonian Prism into seven Colours, can it be compared with the Ease and Comfort every Man living might feel seven times a Day, by discharging freely the Wind from his Bowels? Especially if it be converted into a Perfume: For the Pleasures of one Sense being little inferior to those of another, instead of pleasing the Sight he might delight the Smell of those about him, & make Numbers happy, which to a benevolent Mind must afford infinite Satisfaction. The generous Soul, who now endeavours to find out whether the Friends he entertains like best Claret or Burgundy, Champagne or Madeira, would then enquire also whether they chose Musk or Lilly, Rose or Bergamot, and provide accordingly. And surely such a Liberty of Expressing one’s Scent-iments, and pleasing one another, is of infinitely more Importance to human Happiness than that Liberty of the Press, or of abusing one another, which the English are so ready to fight & die for. — In short, this Invention, if compleated, would be, as Bacon expresses it, bringing Philosophy home to Mens Business and Bosoms. And I cannot but conclude, that in Comparison therewith, for universal and continual UTILITY, the Science of the Philosophers above-mentioned, even with the Addition, Gentlemen, of your “Figure quelconque” and the Figures inscrib’d in it, are, all together, scarcely worth a

FART-HING.

Citations

Franklin, Benjamin. “A Letter to a Royal Academy About Farting.” Teaching American History, https://teachingamericanhistory.org/library/document/to-the-royal-academy-of-farting/.

18th Century Podcast Episode 21 Spycraft

Execution of Nathan Hale

Listen here: https://anchor.fm/cj123/episodes/18th-Century-Podcast-Episode-21-Spycraft-e86oi3/a-auf07g

Summary

In today’s episode, we’ll be going over spycraft in the 18th Century. We’ll cover some techniques spies would use to conceal their messages, and some notable spies from the 18th Century like Nathan Hale. We’ll also discuss some spy activity during Benjamin Franklin’s time in Paris. You don’t want to miss this one!

Script

INTRO

Welcome back to the 18th Century Podcast. I am your host, Cj. In today’s episode, we’ll be going over spycraft in the 18th Century. If you’d like to read the script for this episode and its citations, go to 18thcentury.home.blog that’s 1, 8, t h, century dot home dot blog. Type the numbers don’t spell them. Let’s kick things off by talking about a general overview of spycraft in the 18th Century.

PART 1 SPYCRAFT

Robert Townsend, Culper Spy Ring

Spying was frowned upon in the 18th Century. It could lead to a death sentence. There was a view that spying was ungentlemanly. It was an activity that was used but frowned upon. Though States may not openly admit that they used spies, spies were vital in times of war. There were no central intelligence organizations like there are today, but agents or rings were formed when necessary. Perhaps the most famous spy ring in the 18th Century was the Culper Spy Ring, which I did read a few of their letters, however poorly, a couple of episodes ago. I’d recommend checking out the blog post for that episode so you can read the letters yourself. I won’t be going into the Culper Ring today, as that will be a future episode in and of itself. Though spies were used, it was more common for a military to gain intelligence from local sources about their enemy. This could be through local newspapers, rumors, or gossip. People like to talk and information travels. But between spies, they would communicate mainly through letters and coded messages. Ciphers were a popular method of concealing information. Books were sometimes written to decipher the messages. These books would have typically been within the ring only. Another method which also dates back centuries was invisible ink. For example, during the American Revolution, an invisible ink was made by mixing ferrous sulfate and water. The spy would write the hidden message between lines of a letter and then pass it off. To read the message heat or another chemical could be applied. One such chemical which could bring forth the message was sodium carbonate. Now, a British method of transferring information, which could have been used by other States as well, was hidden messages. Hidden messages would be written on small pieces of paper and concealed in an object, which a courier could transfer. One method which I have seen before but I forgot about was masked messages. A masked message was when a message would be concealed in a letter that only could be read if a specially designed shaped template was placed over the letter. Spies have been used for centuries before and centuries after, but I think it’s time we take a look into a small story of spies in France during the second half of the 1770s. 

PART 2 SPIES NESTLED IN PARIS 

Benjamin Franklin in Paris with coon skin cap

This section will be covering part of the American Revolution, and I know I’ve talked about doing my American Revolution series on the podcast for a few episodes. It’s coming… eventually. But I do want to share a small tale concerning spies and Paris during this period. Our tale begins in 1776 when the new Congress of the United States sends Benjamin Franklin to France as a diplomat. His mission is to gain French support for the American Cause. I think it goes without saying how famous Benjamin Franklin was in Paris. The French loved him, and I’ll dive deeper into this when I do a bio on Benjamin Franklin. However, there were still some under the table dealings Franklin did while in France. Franklin had amassed a connection of friends in France and Agents working under him. Franklin would launch a series of schemes while also conducting diplomacy. One such instance was a successful piece of propaganda against the British on their turf. One ploy of propaganda was giving false newspaper stories of Britain’s Native American allies which stipulated that the Natives were committing horrendous acts on the frontier. The ploy would pay off as it caused a further division in Parliament. Franklin’s agents would amass a bounty of British Naval movements. I think this goes without saying how well connected he truly was. The British Ambassador to France was quoted as saying about Franklin, quote, “veteran of mischief,” unquote. Franklin was clever, but one thing he never found out during his time in Paris, was that his then Secretary, Edward Bancroft, was an agent for the British. Edward would write the intelligence on Franklin in invisible ink, then he would leave it at a dead drop where Paul Wentworth, the man in charge of British espionage in Paris, would pick it up. The information gathered by Edward would successfully make it’s way to the direct hands of King George III. However, the information collected on Franklin was mostly in vain. King George III, for the most part, dismissed the information collected. Franklin did come to suspect there was a mole in his midst and he would on occasion, send false information as a way to trap the British Agent. He never did figure out it was his own Secretary. Now, the French had their very own well-connected spy ring in their Capitol. The French would spy on citizens and foreigners alike. The French agents would gather their information through a plethora of ways, among which were, gossip, and pillow talk after relations. It goes without saying, the French had spies placed on Franklin. Franklin, of course, was aware he was being watched. He knew both about the British and the French, though he may not have known the exact identity of all the spies placed on him. After the Americans claimed victory of the Battle of Saratoga, the British were considering to find a way to reconcile with the Americans. Franklin became aware of this and hatched a plan which would help encourage the French to support the American cause. Though the French were not in the conflict as of yet, a prolonged conflict could have benefited the French over their most hated adversary, the British. Franklin pretended he was interested in talking with the British. Possibly, he implied opening a dialogue with them. This was discovered by French agents, and the information was passed along. The French panicked. They hastened for a deal giving support to the Americans. Through careful maneuvering, and playing the agents on him, Franklin’s plan was realized. Now, we’re going to take a short break, and when we come back for the second half of this episode, we’re going to take a look at some notable spies in the 18th Century. Don’t go away.

PART 3 PROMINENT SPIES

Nathan Hale

Welcome back. We’ll continue the second half of today’s show discussing some of the most prominent spies in the 18th Century. I’m going to start this off with one of the most famous spies in the 18th Century Nathan Hale. Nathan Hale was a graduate of Yale and a schoolteacher from Connecticut. When the American War for Independence broke out Nathan joined the Connecticut regiment in 1775. He would gain the rank of Captain. During the early phases of the War, Washington needed intelligence on the British. Young Nathan volunteered to go and spy on their adversary on September 10th, 1776. He would disguise himself as a Dutch Schoolmaster and sneak past British lines on Long Island. Hale would spend the next few days collecting intelligence on British troop movements. On September 21st, Hale attempted to cross back to American lines, but he was captured by the British. Hale would be interrogated by British General William Howe. General Howe would discover incriminating documents on Hale’s person. General Howe ordered the execution of Hale for the following morning. Nathan Hale would receive no trail. The 21-year-old marched to the gallows, and purportedly his final words were, quote, “I only regret that I have but one life to give for my country,” unquote. Hale would go down as one of the most famous spies in 18th Century history, even though he failed his mission and had no training or experience in spycraft.

Charles Théveneau de Morande

Let’s transition to a successful spy, one over in Europe, a French spy named, Charles Théveneau de Morande. I will hence refer to him as Charles. Charles was a lawyer’s son, and he served in the Seven Years War. After the Seven Years War, Charles made his way to Paris where he would indulge himself in Vice. Things would get heated for him and he fled Paris in 1770 to London to avoid being arrested. In London, he would print pamphlets attacking King Louis XV’s mistress. Louis XV was furious with Charles’s activities. He wanted the man extradited or kidnaped if possible, but his attempts bore no fruit. When initial revenge attempts failed, the King decided to attempt another plan. He plotted to turn Charles into a spy, and he sent Pierre-Augustin Caron de Beaumarchais to London to recruit Charles. Pierre-Augustin was in disgrace at the time from losing two court cases in the 1770s. Seeking redemption, Pierre-Augustin traveled to London to recruit Charles. The French Foreign Minister, Charles de Vergennes, also saw our Charles as someone worth investing in. Charles had a knack for uncovering secrets and publishing them in pamphlets, and his outspokenness against the French King would add a layer of protection against British suspicion. During the American War of Independence, Charles kept track of ship movements out of British ports, and very successfully at that. He continued his service spying on the British after the war as well. He would go on and recruit high up engineers to his side. Charles became the editor of a prominent French newspaper in London, Courier de l’Europe. This new position would further give him credence for information gathering. The paper was a massive hit across Europe, but not so much in Parliament. The British Parliament viewed it as a sort of open espionage during the American War of Independence. The allegations that the paper was, in fact, a form of espionage were basically true. The British eventually banned the exportation of the paper. But it’s Naval Officer and Enturepenure, Samuel Swinton, smuggled it out. Samuel was a British spy and used the paper as a means to enter France where he would conduct operations on the Americans and French. All the while Charles was printing hidden messages in paragraphs in the paper which were codded for French intelligence. During the American Revolution, The French helped set up a ring with Charles were he would have multiple couriers in a sort of loose network as not to arouse suspicion. The British did suspect Charles as an agent for France, but they never gathered proof. Charles would remain in Great Britain until 1791 when he made his return to France.

Eva Löwen

Our final spy for today comes from Sweden. Eva Löwen was born in 1743 and the daughter of the Governor-General. Her family was well politically connected. When her father was appointed as the Governor-General, the family moved. At their new home, Eva would meet her future husband Fredrik Ribbing. Fredrik was politically well connected himself and was close to the Royal couple. Eva would find herself in the heart of Swedish politics in the mid-1760s. Eva would become popular in Swedish high society. She was characterized as witty, and admirable, but also renowned for her… escapades in the private company of others. I trust you understand what I’m getting at. She became a lover of the French Ambassador to Sweden, Louis Auguste Le Tonnelier de Breteuil. Gustav III attempted to initiate a relationship with Eva, but she rejected his advances. She had other relations with high ranking men in Swedish society, and this may have gained the interest of the French. In the years before Gustav III’s coup, she was on a list of recipients receiving a pension from the French Government. After Gustav III’s successful coup and coronation of 1772, Eva grew closer with him as a friend and they spent their time in grand conversation. Everything would fall apart with the death of Eva’s husband in 1783. Eva would first move in with Gustaf Macklean, a person she previously had a connection to. Gustav III began to fall out of favor. Eva’s son became a part of an assassination plot to kill King Gustav III. Her son had influence from what was occurring in France at the time. After the assassination of Gustav III, he was sentenced to death, but received a pardon and was expelled from Sweden and stripped of nobility. Eva and Gustaf Macklean accompanied her son first to Paris, and then to Switzerland. Eva and Gustaf would marry in 1796 and moved into a Manor in Sweden. Eva died at home in 1813.

OUTRO

This brings us to the end of this week’s episode. Spies and their history is certainly a fascinating topic. I learned a few things this week which I did not expect, and I hope you did as well. The script and citations for this episode and all other episodes can be found at 18thcentury.home.blog that’s 1, 8, t h, century dot home dot blog. Type the numbers don’t spell them. If you’d like to support the show, please share it and leave a review. I’ve been your host Cj, and thank you for listening to this episode of the 18th Century Podcast.

CITATIONS

“Spy Techniques of the Revolutionary War.” George Washington’s Mount Vernon, https://www.mountvernon.org/george-washington/the-revolutionary-war/spying-and-espionage/spy-techniques-of-the-revolutionary-war/.

Crews, Ed. “Spies and Scouts, Secret Writing, and Sympathetic Citizens.” Spies and Scouts, Secret Writing, and Sympathetic Citizens : The Colonial Williamsburg Official History & Citizenship Site, 2004, https://www.history.org/Foundation/journal/Summer04/spies.cfm.

HistoryExtraAdmin. “18th Century Espionage: the French Spy in London.” HistoryExtra, 10 Oct. 2018, https://www.historyextra.com/period/georgian/18th-century-espionage-the-french-spy-in-london/.

“Nathan Hale Is Executed by the British for Spying.” History.com, A&E Television Networks, 13 Nov. 2009, https://www.history.com/this-day-in-history/patriot-executed-for-spying.

Eva Helena Löwen, http://www.skbl.se/sv/artikel/EvaLowen, Svenskt kvinnobiografiskt lexikon (article by Brita Planck), retrieved 2019-10-25.

18th Century Podcast Episode 18 English Dinner Party

18th century cooking

Listen here: https://anchor.fm/cj123/episodes/18th-Century-Podcast-Episode-18-English-Dinner-Party-e635st/a-aq6g8m

Summary

In today’s episode, we will be discussing the subject of the English Dinner Party from the 18th Century. I’ll be going over a few recipes too.

Script

INTRO

Welcome back to the 18th Century Podcast. I am your host, Cj. In today’s episode, we will be discussing the subject of the English Dinner Party from the 18th Century. I’ll be going over a few recipes too. Some of the food mentioned and the recipes provided in this episode I got from the 18th Century Cooking, series on youtube put out by Townsends. I’ll provide links to their videos at the bottom of the script post for this episode. If you’d like to read the script for this episode and its citations, go to 18thcentury.home.blog that’s 1, 8, t h, century dot home dot blog. Type the numbers don’t spell them. Let’s begin this episode by taking a look at the dinner party from the 18th Century.

PART 1 THE DINNER

I think talking about the dinner itself is a good place to commence. We’ll be taking a look at this from primarily an English perspective. More specifically, for the upper class. Dinner was a very formal meal. You could say it was regarded as the most important meal. There were instances of women taking the time to change clothes specifically for dinner. Men would also prepare themselves for dinner but would usually take less time than women. It was important especially for the young to dress well, for if they were single, these dinners might lead to courtship. Dessert after the dinner was considered less formal than the dinner itself. Each house had its own set time for dinner and the hours would vary. When having guests, the dinner would commence once the Lady of the house would request the most prominent woman guest to bring the other ladies to the table. Going off of this cue, the Master of the house would do the same for the men. The host and hostess would seat themselves first. The Master would sit at the foot of the table, and the Lady would sit at the head. After this, the most senior Lady would pick her place at the table, once she sat, the other guests were free to pick their spots. However, it was more socially acceptable to place oneself regarding social rank. During the first half of the Century, guests were expected to bring their own flatware, but that custom was disregarded during the second half of the century. Forks would be placed on the left, and the spoons with the knives would be placed on the right. You would not eat with a fork. The fork was reserved for holding meat in place while you cut it. The knives were broad at the time and did not come to a point. You would place your food on your knife and consume it using that utensil. When the dinner knives lost their point at the end, we began to see the beginnings of toothpicks. An interesting piece regarding napkins as they were in use in the early part of the century. However, they fell out of favor for the English, being viewed as too French. Dinner guests were thus expected to wipe their mouths with the table cloth instead. An interesting thing of note is once the guests were seated, the plates were not yet on the table. Kitchens were typical further away from the dining table, so once they reached the table they were typically lukewarm. The plates were kept near a fire or specialty warmers while the food arrived. Plates were then placed in front of the guests, so the plate could act as a vessel to reheat the food. The wine or beer glasses were kept chilled with ice brought from an ice house. We can infer that if they were using ice to chill their glasses, it was a symbol of status. Ice was expensive, so if you could afford to use some, it was a subtle way to flaunt your wealth. The wealthy would eat off of porcelain plates among the other dishes, and they were typically white with a blue pattern upon them. Centerpieces were also common, and they could be a multitude of things, such as sugar sculptures. These centerpieces could have been used as a topic of conversation. Servants would handle the food and dishes on the table. The dinner would be served in multiple corses. How each course was arranged on the table was an art in and of itself, and there were books dedicated to the topic. Typically there would be two courses and dessert. Each course could contain anywhere from five to around twenty-five dishes. As a guest, you were not expected to try something from every dish. The layout would typically be as follows with some variation: Meat dishes in the middle of the table, sides would be on the corners, soup would be placed at one end, and fish at the other. The meal would begin with the guests being served soup. Wine would be served with the meal. If you wished to take a drink, there was a sort of ritual to it. If a guest wished to take a drink they first had to make eye contact with another guest and raise your glass. Once the person you made eye contact with raises their glass, you may take a sip. However, you then must wait for someone to make eye contact with you and raise a glass before you can take another sip during the dinner. Each guest would eat from two to three dishes per course. The amounts they took were at their discretion. If a guest wanted something from across the table, they would have a servant retrieve it for them. Once the first course was complete, the dishes would be removed from the table. A new tablecloth, plates, and flatware were brought forth to the guests. The second course would consist of lighter foods, yes there were meats, but there was also jellies and tarts. You could view the second corse as a bridge between the first and the dessert. Though other beverages were sometimes available such as beer or ale, wine was preferred. Port and sherry were popular. I would like to note, you may find wine called sac, but sac was the equivalent of sweet sherry.

After the second course finished, the tablecloth would be removed and not replaced. Desserts would consist of small cakes, dried fruits, candied fruit and the like. The Gentleman attending would drink port typically, and the ladies would consume a sweet wine. The dinner rules relaxed once dessert was served. You no longer had to make eye contact with another to drink, you could simply drink. Other formalities such as seating went away with dessert. Guests could rearrange themselves to sit however they wished. The topics of conversation became more relaxed as more coarse topics were now allowed to be discussed. A curious rule regarding relieving oneself was present. It was considered rude to leave the table during the actual dinner if you felt as though you had to use the bathroom. To accommodate this, a chamberpot was kept off to the side of the room for guests to use, so they could relieve themselves without breaking the flow of conversation. The dinner itself would last about two hours. Once the meal was complete, a glass of wine was served to each guest. When everyone had finished this glass of wine, the hostess would stand and a servant would open the doors. The ladies would follow their hostess out of the dining room and into the drawing-room. The gentleman would remain in the dining room drinking and conversing with one another. Now we’re going to take a short break, and when we come back, we’ll take a look at some of the foods served and the preparation of the dinner parties. We’ll be right back.

PART 2 RECIPIES

Welcome back. We’ll continue the second half of today’s episode by briefly discussing 18th Century recipes. I tried to find information about 18th Century English Kitchens, but there is surprisingly very little information about that topic online. So, I’ll be giving you three recipes that may have been consumed at an English Dinner Party. Some of the recipes I’m providing here came from the Townsends youtube series, 18th Century Cooking. On the blog post for this episode, I’ll provide the video links so you can follow along at home. I highly recommend watching their videos, as they are simply fantastic. The first recipe will come from Mrs. Glasse’s book, The Art of Cookery Made Plain and Easy. The recipe we will be making is called, To Dress a Duck with Green Peas. As a side note, green peas were very popular during the 18th Century. Alright, the recipe is as follows, quote, “Put a deep stew-pan over the fire, with a piece of fresh butter; singe your duck and flour it, turn it in the pan two or three minutes, then pour out all the fat but let the duck remain in the pan : put to it a pint of good gravy, a pint of peas, two lettuces cut small, a small bundle of sweet herbs, a little pepper and salt, cover them close, and let them stew for half an hour, now and then give then pan a shake ; when they are just done, grate in a little nutmeg, and put in a very little beaten mace, and thicken it either with a piece of butter rolled in flour, or the yolk of an egg beat up with two or three spoonfuls of cream ; shake it all together for three or four minutes, take out the sweet herbs lay the duck in the dish, and pour the sauce over it. You may garnish with boiled mint chopped, or let it alone.” Unquote. The next recipe will be for a version of macaroni and cheese from Townsends video, “Macaroni” – A Recipe From 1784. First, start by boiling 4 oz. of short tube pasta which should be around an inch and a half. After it has finished boiling, strain the pasta through a sieve to let it dry. The put it in a frying pan topped with a jill of heavy cream, and a ball of butter rolled in flour. Place the pan over the fire or a stove for about five minutes. Take the pan off and put the contents in a bowl. Top it with a lot of parmesan cheese, and toast it with a salamander. You’ll want the cheese to lightly brown. If you’d like, you could add a little pepper to top it off. For our final recipe which also comes from Townsends, we’ll make, a cream puff, or as they title it, “Whipt Cream, Like Snow” – Not Your Typical Whipped Cream. To make this, start by boiling about 1 cup of water. Add about a tablespoon of sugar. Next, add a little lemon zest. Then you’ll want to add about 4 oz. of butter. Then add a little salt. Slowly add in flour while stirring, and when it begins to separate from the sides, take it off the oven or fire. Let it cool a little but still keep it warm. Add eggs in one by one and thoroughly stir each one in. You’ll want it to get to a smooth silky texture. Around three eggs should do. Add blobs of the batter to a cooking sheet. Set your oven to 375 and put it in for about a half-hour. While that’s baking, begin the work on the cream. To a large bowl, add a pint of heavy cream. Add sugar to taste (perhaps a quarter cup). Then the juice of a lemon. Next, add about a cup of sac or sweet sherry. Then you’ll want to whip it to make whipped cream. Once the pastries are done in the oven, take them out and let them cool. Once they are cooled, cut the tops off. Take a bit of the center out of the pastries to make room for the cream. Spoon in the whipped cream. Put the tops back on, and you’re ready to eat 18th Century Cream Puffs! 

OUTRO

Well, this brings us to the end of this episode of the 18th Century Podcast. I hope you found this episode as interesting as I did, and maybe I’ll do a few more episodes like this in the future if you guys want. The script and citations for this episode and all other episodes can be found at 18thcentury.home.blog that’s 1, 8, t h, century dot home dot blog. Type the numbers don’t spell them. If you’d like to support the show, please share it and leave a review. I’ve been your host Cj, and thank you for listening to this episode of the 18th Century Podcast.

CITATIONS

Verylargerabbit. “18th Century Table Setting.” The Edible Eighteenth Century, 5 Nov. 2012, https://engl3164.wordpress.com/2012/11/05/18th-century-table-setting/.

Shamo, Denis V. “Cultural Rules of Dining.” Rules of Dining in 18th Century England, http://umich.edu/~ece/student_projects/food/rules.htm.

Mrs. Glasse. The Art of Cookery Made Plain and Easy. 1st American ed., Cottom & Stewart, 1805. (First published in England in 1747)

Townsends. “‘Macaroni’ – A Recipe From 1784.” YouTube, YouTube, 26 Feb. 2018, https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=hV-yHbbrKRA.

Townsends. “‘Whipt Cream, Like Snow’ – Not Your Typical Whipped Cream.” YouTube, YouTube, 19 Aug. 2019, https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=tpoMQ5hNd1Y.

18th Century Podcast Episode 17 Drinks

1700s alcohol drinking

Listen here: https://anchor.fm/cj123/episodes/18th-Century-Podcast-Episode-17-Drinks-e5kho8/a-aouoh3

Summary

In this episode, we will be discussing different kinds of drinks from the 18th Century. I’ll be going over a few recipes too. Some of the drinks mentioned will be alcoholic, so if you decide to try one of the alcoholic drinks, please drink responsibly and be of legal age.

Script

INTRO

Welcome back to the 18th Century Podcast. I am your host, Cj. In today’s episode, we will be discussing different kinds of drinks from the 18th Century. I’ll be going over a few recipes too. Some of the drinks mentioned will be alcoholic, so if you decide to try one of the alcoholic drinks, please drink responsibly and be of legal age. Some of the drinks mentioned and the recipes provided in this episode I got from the 18th Century Cooking, series on youtube put out by Townsends. I’ll provide links to their videos on the bottom of the script post for this episode. If you’d like to read the script for this episode and its citations, go to 18thcentury.home.blog that’s 1, 8, t h, century dot home dot blog. Type the numbers don’t spell them. Let’s begin this episode by taking a look at a brief overview of 18th Century drinks.

PART 1 18TH CENTURY DRINKS

What may surprise you about the 18th Century is the multitude of available drinks. A wide range of alcoholic and nonalcoholic beverages can be found throughout the Century. Some of the non-alcoholic beverages may surprise you by the multitude of them. Also during the 18th Century regarding alcoholic beverages, we start to see the beginnings of cocktails. I want to start this off by giving a fun fact about water during the 18th Century. Water is perhaps the most basic drink we consume, and today we could get it right from our fridge or bottled. I think it’s clear that they didn’t have fridges back then, but they did have bottled water. If you were in the country and found a clean source of water, you’d probably drink it. But if you lived in a larger city, clean water was hard to come by. They didn’t know about germs at the time, but they could tell if water was clean or not. Water would be bottled from clean sources and sold to those in the city. Mineral water was also being sold during the 18th Century as it was viewed as having healing properties. Let’s continue with our next segment, non-alcoholic drinks.

PART 2 NON-ALCOHOLIC DRINKS 

I believe the most proper way to start discussing non-alcoholic beverages would be to talk about the most famous drink from the 18th Century, tea. Tea was perhaps one of the most popular drinks especially in England and the Colonies. They consumed it as green or black. Though tea was popular, that doesn’t mean it was cheap. Tea could cost up to 10 shillings per pound. Milk was commonly added to the drink. Personally, I have found myself enjoying green tea with a little cream once and a while. I will be devoting a future episode entirely to tea at some point because it’s a larger topic than you’d think. Regarding milk, the better quality milk was found out in the countryside on farms. There were cows brought in to provide milk for the cites, but these cows were typically in poor health due to their diet. People in the 18th Century didn’t typically drink milk by itself, and it was usually added to something instead. We can find the drink, hot chocolate found in the 18th Century, but they prepared somewhat similar to how we would do it. Taking a recipe from Elizabeth Raffald’s, The experienced English house-keeper, quote, “Scrape four ounces of chocolate and pour one quart of boiling water on it, mill it well with a chocolate mill and sweeten it to your taste; give it a boil and let it stand all night, then mill it again very well; boil it two minutes, then mill it, it will leave a froth upon the top of your cups.” unquote. Coffee was also a popular drink. Coffee Houses were popular in England and the Colonies, and the first ones date back to the 17th Century. Coffee Houses acted as a sort of hub for discussion and gossip. Just like today, coffee was a popular breakfast drink. Coffee and Hot Chocolate were typically drunk from cups without handles. Sometimes to cool their coffee, they would pour it into a saucer. Towards the end of the 18th Century, coffee would start to lose its popularity in England. An interesting 1730s summer drink which was supposed to be refreshing was Barley Water. If you’d like to try Barley Water, here’s a simple recipe. First, boil 4 ounces of barley, then add 1-2 quarts of water to cool. Next, you’ll want to add a stick of cinnamon, and 1 or 2 blades of mace. Bring it back up to a boil. After it boils, strain the liquid into a bowl. Let it cool to about room temperature. Add sugar to taste. Add the juice of around 2 lemons. Then you’ll want to bottle the drink and keep it cool. Once it’s cool you can serve and if you wish, garnish with lemon peel. If it’s kept cool the drink should keep for a few days. Now, I’m going to take a short break and when I come back we’ll discuss alcoholic drinks during the 18th Century. I’ll be right back.

PART 3 ALCOHOLIC DRINKS 

Welcome back. We’ll finish up the second half of this episode by discussing alcoholic drinks in the 18th Century. And based off of my research for this episode, they loved to drink. To give proof to this, let me quote a Georgian, quote, “If I take a settler after my coffee, a cooler at nine, a bracer at ten, a whetter at eleven and two or three stiffners during the forenoon, who has any right to complain?” Unquote. Also to further back this up with some numbers, in 1790 the United States found out that those who were 15 and older drank on average “thirty-four gallons of beer and cider, five gallons of distilled spirits, and one gallon of wine,” per capita annually. In the Americas Cider and Beer were the primary choice for a time. Before the American Revolution, rum was the preferred drink over whiskey. But because of patriotism during the American War of Independence attitudes shifted to a drink which was more local to the area, Whiskey. Going back to rum for a second, in the colonies alone by 1770 there were over 140 distilleries. When whiskey came into fashion in the Americas, it was Kentucky Bourbon which got near the top. During George Washington’s later life, he would distill whiskey on his property. I’ve been to the site, and if you ever get a chance to tour Mount Vernon, do so, and make sure to go through the distillery. In the morning John Adams would drink hard cider. Samuel Adams assisted in the running of his father’s brewery. John Hancock was accused of being a wine smuggler leading up to the Revolution. Thomas Jefferson would import French Wine. At one point, Patrick Henery was a bartender, and when he was the Virginia Governor he would serve his own brewed alcohol to his guests. Another prevalent drink during the 18th Century in the Americas and England was Small Beer. Small Beer was a low alcoholic beer which would have been consumed by men, women, and children during the 18th Century. It also went across class as both rich and poor would consume it. It could be found being served with meals, such as breakfast. You might not find the word cocktail in the 18th Century, but they did have mixed drinks. One such drink was called the Rattle-Skull. The Rattle-Skull was made with, “three to four ounces of hard liquor usually an equal split between rum and brandy would be dropped into a pint of strong porter, tarted up with the juice of half a lime and then showered with shaved nutmeg.” Another drink which you might have found at a tavern would have been a Stone Fence. A Stone Fence was made by pouring two ounces of dark rum into a glass, then topping it with hard cider. You might want the cider to be a little sweet too. Perhaps one of the most interesting recipes I found was for a drink called a Whipped Syllabub, which would have also acted as a dessert. To make a Whipped Syllabub, take a glass of wine (your choice) and add a teaspoon of sugar to it, or sugar to taste if you prefer. Stir the sugar in until it dissolves. To make the whipped part, in a bowl pour a cup of white wine, mix in the juice of 2 lemons, and a 1/2 cup of granulated sugar. Stir this until the sugar is dissolved. To the bowl, and one pint of heavy cream. Whip the bowl’s contents into a froth. Once you’ve completed whipping, layer the whip on top of the wine. You can garnish with a little nutmeg if you so desire. You’re going to consume this with a spoon. You can eat each layer one by one, or you can stir the whip with the wine and consume it that way.

OUTRO

Well, this brings us to the end of this episode of the 18th Century Podcast. It was fascinating to learn about the different types of drinks which were consumed during the 18th Century. I hope you found this episode to be as interesting as I did. The script and citations for this episode and all other episodes can be found at 18thcentury.home.blog that’s 1, 8, t h, century dot home dot blog. Type the numbers don’t spell them. If you’d like to support the show, please share it and leave a review. I’ve been your host Cj, and thank you for listening to this episode of the 18th Century Podcast.

CITATIONS

Crews, Ed. “Drinking in Colonial America: Rattle-Skull, Stonewall, Bogus, Blackstrap, Bombo, Mimbo, Whistle Belly, Syllabub, Sling, Toddy, and Flip.” Drinking in Colonial America: Rattle-Skull, Stonewall, Bogus, Blackstrap, Bombo, Mimbo, Whistle Belly, Syllabub, Sling, Toddy, and Flip : The Colonial Williamsburg Official History & Citizenship Site, 2007, https://www.history.org/foundation/journal/holiday07/drink.cfm.

Swindell, Melissa. “What Was in Colonial Cups besides Tea? Cider, Water, Milk, and Whiskey!” National Museum of American History, 29 Sept. 2015, https://americanhistory.si.edu/blog/2012/12/what-was-in-colonial-cups-besides-tea-cider-water-milk-and-whiskey.html.

Geri Walton. “Popular Drinks of the Georgian Era.” Geri Walton, 14 Nov. 2016, https://www.geriwalton.com/popular-drinks-of-georgian-era/.

Murden, Sarah. “A Cup of Tea Anyone, Made the 18th Century Way?” All Things Georgian, 8 June 2019, https://georgianera.wordpress.com/2018/05/31/a-cup-of-tea-anyone-made-the-18th-century-way/.

Murden, Sarah. “18th Century Drinking Chocolate.” All Things Georgian, 28 Apr. 2018, https://georgianera.wordpress.com/2015/01/06/18th-century-drinking-chocolate/.

“History of Bottled Water.” EFBW, https://www.efbw.org/index.php?id=39.

Major, Joanne. “A Brief History of Coffee in the Georgian Era.” All Things Georgian, 8 May 2018, https://georgianera.wordpress.com/2018/04/12/a-brief-history-of-coffee-in-the-georgian-era/.

Townsends. “Barley Water From 1734 – Perfect Drink For This Summer Heat!” YouTube, YouTube, 8 July 2019, https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=zV1FuzftraI.

Townsends. “What Is Small Beer? – Q&A.” YouTube, YouTube, 19 May 2016, https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=dtjN1qWoflk.

Townsends. “Making Easy and Delicious Whipped Syllabubs.” YouTube, YouTube, 4 May 2015, https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=y6NIMNkaGI4.

18th Century Podcast Episode 15 Secret Societies

Listen here: https://anchor.fm/cj123/episodes/18th-Century-Podcast-Episode-15-Secret-Societies-e5c7p4/a-anf5ha

Summary

In today’s episode, we will be taking a look at secret societies.We’re going to start the episode discussing a brief overview of the topic, then a few societies in particular. Among those discussed will be The Freemasons, The Hell Fire Club, and The Illuminati.

Script

INTRO

Welcome back to the 18th Century Podcast. I am your host, Cj. In today’s episode, we will be taking a look at secret societies. Secret Societies are a fascinating topic, and they were somewhat prevalent during the 18th Century. We’re going to start the episode discussing a brief overview of the topic, then a few societies in particular. Among those discussed will be The Freemasons, The Hell Fire Club, and The Illuminati. f you’d like to read the script for this episode and its citations, go to 18thcentury.home.blog that’s 1, 8, t h, century dot home dot blog. Type the numbers don’t spell them. Let’s get into it with, a brief overview of secret societies in the 18th Century.

OVERVIEW OF SECRET SOCIETIES

Perhaps the best way to describe a secret society is to speak of it’s most basic elements. A secret society is a group of people centered around a goal or a group of goals or ideas and espousing them in secrecy. Secret societies could be religious or secular. Ceremony and rituals are often involved, as passed down traditions. A secret society could have certain qualifications for membership, such as being of a particular sex, specific age, social class, your even your job. Traditionally, most secret societies tended to be for adult males. Now let’s look at some examples of secret societies in the 18th Century, beginning with the Freemasons.

PART 1 FREEMASONS

Freemasonry is perhaps one of the most popular secret societies in the world. The roots of Freemasonry go back further than that of the 18th Century. Most likely, Freemasonry started as a guild or guilds in the Middle Ages. Yet as time went on, the formed into the group known as the Freemasons. One no longer had to be an actual mason to join. Semblance of Freemasonry slowly came into being during the 17th Century. There were signs of Lodges in the 17th Century as well. I would like to note, that at this point, it was more focused in England. Jumping into the 18th Century, the more modern structure began to take shape. On June 24th, 1717, the first Grand Lodge was established. This Grand Lodge was comprised of four separate Lodges in London coming together. This would be the first Grand Lodge in the entire world. In 1723 the new Grand Lodge published their first rule book. Then in 1725, the Grand Lodge of Ireland was established. The French Grand Lodge opened its doors in 1728. On July 30th, 1733 the first Grand Lodge in America was established. 18 men gathered together in a Tavern in Boston to establish the new Grand Lodge. Which, was also the first Lodge in America. In 1736 the Scottish Grand Lodge was established. Around the 1730s through the 1740s in France, there was an idea of having a mixed-sex form of Freemasonry. This could be referred to as, Rite of Adoption. It wasn’t popular with everyone, but rules for it were eventually adopted in France. One of the key points of Freemasonry is Brotherhood. Some general requirements for joining were being a freeborn Male who believes in some sort of Supreme Being, of good character, and particular minimum age. The term, “Lodge” refers to the meeting of Masons. However, the word “Lodge” can be interpreted as where they meet as well. Grand Lodges issues charters or warrants for the formation of new Lodges. If they do not obtain a charter or warrant they are viewed as irregular and not officially recognized. If they are recognized, they are viewed as regular. This practice of viewing a lodge as regular or irregular is also at the Grand Lodge level as well for the simple fact of mutual recognition. The acts conducted within Freemasonry during the 18th Century were secretive, so I can’t discuss much what they did. I think this is a good spot to move on to the Hellfire Club.

PART 2 HELLFIRE CLUB

You may have heard of the Hellfire Club, if only for the simple fact of Ben Franklin possibly may have attended. There were a few Hellfire Clubs sprinkled throughout Ireland and England. However, the first Hellfire Club was started in England in 1719 by the First Duke of Wharton. There wasn’t a ton of organizational structure in Hellfire Clubs. The main point of these clubs was in fact, Hedonism. Drunkenness and other debaucherous activities were prevalent. The most famous Hellfire Club was started by Sir Francis Dashwood. However, he would add his branding to the Club dubbing it, the Order of the Knights of St Francis. His Club was founded sometime in the 1730s. About six miles from his home in, West Wycombe, Sir Dashwood would set up shop in an old abandoned Abbey. They would meet usually twice a year. Members could expect good food, much drinking, and to quote from a book from 1779 called, Nocturnal Revels, which was a record of the meetings, quote “cheerful ladies of lively dispositions.” Unquote. In the mid-1760s, Sir Dashwood would change the venue. Eventually, the Club would come to a close. Now, were going to take a short break, and when we come back we’ll finish the episode off by talking about, the Illuminati.

PART 3 THE ILLUMINATI

Welcome back. We’ll finish off this week’s episode by discussing one of the most famous secret societies in history, The Illuminati. The real Illuminati was started by a Bavarian man named, Adam Weishaupt. Adam was born in 1748 and attended a Jesuit School in his youth. Adam would go on to become a professor of Natural and Canon Law. He would get married and start a family. He grew up in a Catholic society but read his uncles French Enlightenment books during his youth. His political views tended towards the idea that Monarchy and the Church were repressive organizations. For a time he considered joining the Freemasons but some of his views contrasted with that of the Masons. He decided to form his own society and one of their core beliefs was the abolishment of Monarchy. On May 1st, 1776, the 28-year-old Adam conducted the very first Illuminati meeting. There was a total attendance of five members. They established the rules of their new society that night. Illumination was the main goal of the Illuminati which, to put it another way, was to bring knowledge of true liberty to the people. He added mysticism to their society to make the republican group seem more mysterious. In 1780, Adam attracted the attention of Adolf Francis, a Baron, and an Occultist. The Baron seemed to approve of the Illuminati’s goals and he helped establish chapters across Germany. By 1782 their numbers swelled to around 600 men. The Illuminati attracted doctors, lawyers, politicians, intellectuals and the like. During 1784 their membership would hit about 3000 men. There were 13 degrees a member could attain, and this structure was in part modeled after the Masons. Yet they would meet their downfall between 1784 to 1785. A disillusioned member wrote to the Grand Duchess of Bavaria informing her of the secret societies. The letter was a mixture of truth and falsehoods. The Grand Duchess informed her husband, the Duke-Elector, about this and he would issue an edict effectively banning the formation of societies not prescribed by law. Then in 1785 another edict was passed specifically banning the Illuminati. Police were sent out to arrest members and confiscate anything to do with the Illuminati. In 1787 the Duke-Elector would pass a final edict which officially prohibited the Illuminati and made being a member worthy of a death sentence. Adam was banished and he would spend the rest of his days as a teacher of philosophy at a University in Saxony. Thus, this brings us to the end of the Illuminati.

OUTRO

Secret Societies are an interesting topic. Some of them still exist to this day, such as The Freemasons. I found this as an interesting topic to research and I hope you enjoyed hearing about it as much as I did reading about it. The script and citations for this episode and all other episodes can be found at https://18thcentury.home.blog that’s 1, 8, t h, century dot home dot blog. Type the numbers don’t spell them. If you’d like to support the show, please share it and leave a review. I’ve been your host Cj, and thank you for listening to this episode of the 18th Century Podcast.

CITATIONS

Secret Societies.” Encyclopedia of Religion. . Encyclopedia.com. 3 Sep. 2019 <https://www.encyclopedia.com>.

Britannica, The Editors of Encyclopaedia. “Freemasonry.” Encyclopædia Britannica, Encyclopædia Britannica, Inc., 30 Aug. 2019, https://www.britannica.com/topic/order-of-Freemasons.

Freemasonry and Brotherhood, http://www.msana.com/brotherhood.asp.

“History of Freemasonry.” United Grand Lodge of England – History of Freemasonry, https://www.ugle.org.uk/about-freemasonry/history-of-freemasonry.

“Boston Masons Organize First Grand Lodge in America.” John Brown Speaks in Concord, https://www.massmoments.org/moment-details/boston-masons-organize-first-grand-lodge-in-america.html.

Walton, Geri. “Freemasonry and the ‘Masonry of Adoption’ in 18th Century France.” Geri Walton, 23 Apr. 2019, https://www.geriwalton.com/freemasonry-and-the-masonry-of-adoption-in-18th-century-france/.

“Freemasonry.” New World Encyclopedia, . 11 May 2017, 14:33 UTC. 12 Sep 2019, 20:26 <//www.newworldencyclopedia.org/p/index.php?title=Freemasonry&oldid=1004729>.

“Who Were the Hellfire Club?: The Hellfire Club Archaeological Project.” Abarta Heritage Home, 29 June 2018, https://www.abartaheritage.ie/hellfire-club-archaeological-project/hellfire-club-history/hellfire-club/.&nbsp;

“Hellfire Club History: The Beginnings of the Infamous Secret Society.” Historic Mysteries, 7 Jan. 2017, https://www.historicmysteries.com/hellfire-club/.

The Illuminati.” Gale Encyclopedia of the Unusual and Unexplained. . Encyclopedia.com. 13 Sep. 2019 <https://www.encyclopedia.com>.

Fotostock, Maria Breuer/ImageBroker/Age, and Karger-Decker/Age Fotostock. “Meet the Man Who Started the Illuminati.” National Geographic, 3 Sept. 2019, https://www.nationalgeographic.com/archaeology-and-history/magazine/2016/07-08/profile-adam-weishaupt-illuminati-secret-society/.

18th Century Podcast Episode 13 Dueling

18th Century sword duel

Listen here: https://anchor.fm/cj123/episodes/18th-Century-Podcast-Episode-13-Dueling-e516uh/a-al876d

Summary

In this episode of the 18th Century Podcast we’ll take a look at dueling. First I’ll read the Code Duello, which was practically the instruction manual for duels, then we’ll take a look at a brief history of duels, then I’ll tell you a little story of a duel which may have happened in 1792 called, The Petticoat Duel.

Script


INTRO

Welcome back to the 18th Century Podcast. I am your host, Cj. In today’s episode, we’ll take a look at Dueling. We’ll kick things off by reading the Code Duello. Afterward, we’ll continue by covering some of the histories of duels and their importance to society in the 18th Century. If you’d like to read the script for this episode and its citations, go to 18thcentury.home.blog that’s 1, 8, t h, century dot home dot blog. Type the numbers don’t spell them. Let’s get into it with, the Code Duello.

PART 1 CODE DUELLO

I. The first offence requires the first apology, though the retort may have been more offensive than the insult. Example: A tells B he is impertinent, etc. B retorts that he lies; yet A must make the first apology, because he gave the first offence, and (after one fire) B may explain away the retort by subsequent apology.

II. But if the parties would rather fight on, then, after two shots each (but in no case before), B may explain first and A apologize afterwards.

N.B. The above rules apply to all cases of offences in retort not of a stronger class than the example.

III. If a doubt exists who gave the first offence, the decision rests with the seconds. If they will not decide or cannot agree, the matter must proceed to two shots, or to a hit if the challenger requires it.

IV. When the lie direct is the first offence, the aggressor must either beg pardon in express terms, exchange two shots previous to apology, or three shots followed by explanation, or fire on till a severe hit be received by one party or the other.

V. As a blow is strictly prohibited under any circumstances among gentlemen, no verbal apology can be received for such an insult. The alternatives, therefore, are: The offender handing a cane to the injured party to be used on his back, at the same time begging pardon, firing until one or both are disabled; or exchanging three shots and then begging pardon without the proffer of the cane.

N.B. If swords are used, the parties engage until one is well blooded, disabled, or disarmed, or until, after receiving a wound and blood being drawn, the aggressor begs pardon.

VI. If A gives B the lie and B retorts by a blow (being the two greatest offences), no reconciliation can take place till after two discharges each or a severe hit, after which B may beg A’s pardon for the blow, and then A may explain simply for the lie, because a blow is never allowable, and the offence of the lie, therefore, merges in it. (See preceding rule.)

N.B. Challenges for undivulged causes may be conciliated on the ground after one shot. An explanation or the slightest hit should be sufficient in such cases, because no personal offence transpired.

VII. But no apology can be received in any case after the parties have actually taken their ground without exchange of shots.

VIII. In the above case no challenger is obliged to divulge his cause of challenge (if private) unless required by the challenged so to do before their meeting.

IX. All imputations of cheating at play, races, etc., to be considered equivalent to a blow, but may be reconciled after one shot, on admitting their falsehood and begging pardon publicly.

X. Any insult to a lady under a gentleman’s care or protection to be considered as by one degree a greater offence than if given to the gentleman personally, and to be regarded accordingly.

XI. Offences originating or accruing from the support of ladies’ reputations to be considered as less unjustifiable than any others of the same class, and as admitting of slighter apologies by the aggressor. This is to be determined by the circumstances of the case, but always favourably to the lady.

XII. No dumb firing or firing in the air is admissible in any case. The challenger ought not to have challenged without receiving offence, and the challenged ought, if he gave offence, to have made an apology before he came on the ground; therefore children’s play must be dishonourable on one side or the other, and is accordingly prohibited.

XIII. Seconds to be of equal rank in society with the principals they attend, inasmuch as a second may either choose or chance to become a principal and equality is indispensable.

XIV. Challenges are never to be delivered at night, unless the party to be challenged intends leaving the place of offence before morning; for it is desirable to avoid all hot- headed proceedings.

XV. The challenged has the right to choose his own weapons unless the challenger gives his honour he is no swordsman, after which, however, he cannot decline any second species of weapon proposed by the challenged.

XVI. The challenged chooses his ground, the challenger chooses his distance, the seconds fix the time and terms of firing.

XVII. The seconds load in presence of each other, unless they give their mutual honours that they have charged smooth and single, which shall be held sufficient.

XVIII. Firing may be regulated, first, by signal; secondly by word of command; or, thirdly at pleasure, as may be agreeable to the parties. In the latter case, the parties may fire at their reasonable leisure, but second presents and rests are strictly prohibited.

XIX. In all cases a misfire is equivalent to a shot, and a snap or a non-cock is to be considered a misfire.

XX. Seconds are bound to attempt a reconciliation before the meeting takes place or after sufficient firing or hits as specified.

XXI. Any wound sufficient to agitate the nerves and necessarily make the hand shake must end the business for that day.

XXII. If the cause of meeting be of such a nature that no apology or explanation can or will be received, the challenged takes his ground and calls on the challenger to proceed as he chooses. In such cases firing at pleasure is the usual practice, but may be varied by agreement.

XXIII. In slight cases the second hands his principal but one pistol, but in gross cases two, holding another case ready charged in reserve.

XXIV. When the second disagree and resolve to exchange shots themselves, it must be at the same time and at right angles with their principals. If with swords, side by side, with five paces’ interval.

XXV. No party can be allowed to bend his knee or cover his side with his left hand, but may present at any level from the hip to the eye.

XXVI. None can either advance or retreat if the ground is measured. If no ground be measured, either party may advance at his pleasure, even to the touch of muzzles, but neither can advance on his adversary after the fire, unless the adversary steps forward on him.

N.B. The seconds on both sides stand responsible for this last rule being strictly observed, bad cases having occurred from neglecting it.

N.B. All matters and doubts not herein mentioned will be explained and cleared up by application to the Committee, who meet alternately at Clonmel and Galway at the quarter sessions for that purpose.”

PART 2 HISTORY

Well continue with a brief history of dueling, and I’ll explain what I previously read for better context. The act of dueling goes back centuries and it’s difficult to pinpoint the exact location where duels began, but it is easier to trace down the origin of the word, duel. The word duel most likely derives from the Latin word, duellum, which means, war between two. This art of single combat wasn’t strictly speaking, regulated until the sixth century when the King of Burgundy incorporated trial by combat. Trial by combat was a legal duel to decide the innocence or guilt of a person through a duel. Yet private duels between two people would come to be illegal, even though trial by combat would persist for a time. Duels would become more pronounced through the upper rings of society during the Italian Renaissance, and we would see it spread through the military ranks as well. Codes of conducting duels would spring up and treatises would be written on the topic. The core idea of a duel was to preserve one’s honor. The rules of conduct would change over the centuries, but the core idea remained the same. These honor duels would spread out of Italy and into France, and the rest of Europe. Dueling in the 18th Century was officially illegal, but it didn’t stop participants. In 1777, the Irish Code Duello was written, which codified the tradition of the 18th Century. The idea of honor was staked to the idea of being a Gentleman in the 18th Century, and if you haven’t listened to the episode on being a Gentleman in the18th Century yet, I recommend that you go back and listen to it. If your honor was offended, you must seek satisfaction, or face social consequences. Regarding the weaponry used in duels, swords were the most common for the majority of dueling history. However, once the 18th Century rolled around, and due to the prevalence of firearms, pistols slowly overtook the sword. Eventually, pistols were specifically developed for dueling, and they would get the original name of, Dueling Pistols. Dueling would find a home in the Americas in the 17th Century. This tradition would cross the waters too, but it would find it’s home more in the Southern colonies rather than the Northern due to a stronger sense of honor culture in the South, which continued into the 19th Century. Even though duels were prevalent, the fatality rate was lower than one would expect, being around 20%. Now, we’re going to take a short break, and when we come back, I’ll tell you a little tale of a duel.

PART 3 THE PETTICOAT DUEL

Welcome back. I want to wrap things up with this episode telling you a story about a duel, but not just any duel, The Petticoat Duel. I would like to note that this duel is probably fictitious, but the jury is still out on this one, no matter as it’s still an interesting story which originated close to the period. The Petticoat Duel began in 1792, England. It all began by an exchange between two ladies, Mrs. Elphinstone, and Lady Braddock. They were having a conversation over tea, and as time went on, and Mrs. Elphinstone made a comment over Lady Braddock’s age. Mrs. Elphinstone claimed that Lady Braddock was forty years old, and Lady Braddock asserted she wasn’t even thirty yet. Over such a great offense, Lady Braddock challenged Mrs. Elphinstone to a duel, they were set to meet in Hyde Park. The duel would begin with pistols between the two women. Lady Braddock would prove to be a poor shot, but Mrs. Elphinstone had fate on her side, shooting a hole through Lady Braddock’s hat. Each of their seconds begged them to end the duel, and that Mrs. Elphinstone issue an apology, which, she didn’t. Lady Braddock still demanded satisfaction over the age comment. The duel progressed to swords. They slashed at each other, and metal clashed. At some point, Lady Braddock landed a blow on Mrs. Elphinstone’s sword arm, and the duel was complete. Lady Braddock had received satisfaction, and the two women left the field. This story originally ran in a magazine called the Carlton House Magazine, in 1792.

OUTRO

I hope this episode brought you some insight into the world of dueling during the 18th Century. It wasn’t a pretty thing, but honor culture was highly prevalent during the time. Even if The Petticoat Duel never occurred, it’s a perfect example of how a duel could be instigated over the smallest of things, and it’s a great representation of the period. The script and citations for this episode and all other episodes can be found at https://18thcentury.home.blog that’s 1, 8, t h, century dot home dot blog. Type the numbers don’t spell them. If you’d like to support the show, please share it and leave a review. I’ve been your host Cj, and thank you for listening to this episode of the 18th Century Podcast.

CITATIONS

Irish Code Duello, or The Twenty-Six Commandments. 7 Feb. 2007, http://www.sos.mo.gov/CMSImages/MDH/CodeDuello.pdf.

Krystal, Arthur. “En Garde!” The New Yorker, The New Yorker, 18 June 2017, http://www.newyorker.com/magazine/2007/03/12/en-garde.

Chris. “Dueling History: An Affair of Honor.” The Art of Manliness, 3 Nov. 2018, http://www.artofmanliness.com/articles/man-knowledge-an-affair-of-honor-the-duel/.

Major, Joanne. “The ‘Petticoat Duellists’ of 1792.” All Things Georgian, 7 Nov. 2018, georgianera.wordpress.com/2014/08/05/the-petticoat-duellists-of-1792/.

18th Century Podcast: Episode 4 Gentleman

Listen here: https://anchor.fm/cj123/episodes/18th-Century-Podcast-Episode-4-Gentleman-e46mtf/a-agc30i

Summary

In this episode we do an overview of what it meant to be a Gentleman in the 18th Century. This was a very important concept for the time. In this episode we’ll cover: What is a Gentleman, The Social Gentleman, Gentlemen of War, Dueling.

Script

INTRO


Welcome back to the 18th Century Podcast, I’m your host Cj. Today’s episode will cover a very important concept to the 18th Century, the idea of a Gentleman. Being a Gentleman was a matter of honor, and was extremely important to the people of the 18th Century. If you’d like to read the transcript for this episode and its citations, go to https://18thcentury.home.blog that’s 1, 8, t h, century dot home dot blog. Type the numbers don’t spell them. Now let’s get into what it meant to be a Gentleman of the 18th Century!

PART 1: What is a Gentleman?


Though we are discussing the concept of a Gentleman in the 18th Century, it’s origins date back far earlier. So to get a better understanding of this concept of a Gentleman, let’s go through a brief history of the concept. The word of, “Gentleman” has its roots in Latin, surprise surprise. The “Gentle” part of Gentleman is derived from the Latin, “gentilis” which it could be defined as, “belonging to the same clan… etc.” Jumping forward a bit into the Middle Ages, the concept of a Gentleman was held in a more Military tradition. Though this concept was unsurprisingly geared more towards the nobility. Though there were certain expectations of these early Gentlemen, and codes of conduct arose. As time marched onwards, the ideals of the Gentleman in regards to the Military began to change. Though the concept of action would remain in one form or another. Getting closer to the 17th Century, the concept of a Gentleman was moving from the Military towards the Royal Court. Though those in the Royal Court probably held Military aspects themselves, a Gentleman was moving towards the more social arts. As we start to move towards the 18th Century, the idea of a Gentleman began to move out of politics. The idea of a Gentleman began to be considered by the virtue of a man. Thus it can be inferred that you no longer needed to be born at the very top of the social-political hierarchy, but it was more in the style of how you would conduct yourself. Yes, a Duke could be considered a Gentleman still, but also a wealthy merchant could too. In a sense gave way to more social mobility. Though not in all senses of the word, it leaned towards it. Some common markers of a Gentleman of the 18th Century were education, manners, the type of clothing they wore, among other things as well. Though being a Gentleman in social circles was the trend, it was still present in the Miltary. Let’s cover this in two aspects, the first being in a social manner, and the second being in the Military. Let’s first get into the social.

PART 2: The Social Gentleman


A Gentleman in society was held to certain expectations. There were multiple books written on the topic during the 18th Century. Manners were important to Gentlemen, but the focus laid more heavily towards their morals. As can be inferred, a moral man was part of his virtue. There was an expectation of modesty among these men. One should not speak too highly of themselves. During dinner parties, it was considered polite to only speak among those close to you. It would have been considered impolite to yell from one end of the table to the other. Doing these actions would reflect on your status as a Gentleman. I should note, many of the ideas presented in this section reflect upon the more English idea of a Gentleman, however, there were many common threads across Europe and the Americas which share a commonality with the English. An interesting rule of etiquette which I came across was called, “give the wall” and the thought behind this was as follows, if you as a Gentleman were walking out in public with your Lady, then you would have her walk closest to the walls of shops or other buildings. The purpose was to keep her further away from the filth of the street. And some streets were pretty dirty during the time. In social functions, you would address someone by their last name and their title if they had one. Regarding the education of a Gentleman, they were schooled in the classics. Greek and Latin were very common for the upper-class Gentleman to learn. Other languages might have been taught as well, such as French. Ancient History could have been acquired too. As they would grow into their later teens, they could attend University. At a University a wide array of Academic pursuits could be had. Some of these young Gentleman would skip University and go into the Military. To the educated Gentleman, there were many paths in life to chose from. There was also a certain aspect of how a Gentleman would dress. A Gentleman could be found wearing a three-piece suit. Though the three-piece suit had its origins in the 17th Century, it was popular in the 18th Century. Starting from the basics, underwear. Now, underwear was conceived very differently during the 18th Century than today. The undergarment for Gentlemen was a shirt. To us, this would be very odd just to wear a shirt, but during the time, it was the fashion. Now the shirt would be fairly long and would drop down to about your knees, and it was made from linen. Instead of wearing what we would conceive of as socks, a Gentleman would wear stockings. In our modern setting, women typically wear stockings rather than men, however, in the 18th Century it was worn by both. If you felt like wearing particularly fashionable stockings as a Gentleman, then you would wear your cotton or maybe your silk ones. Regarding your pants, you would wear a common garment which could be found at any level of society, breeches. Your breeches could have been made from a verity of materials. There were breeches made from the like of cotton, wool, and linen, among other materials as well. Then we come to one of the most defining articles of clothing for the time period, in my opinion, the waistcoat. The waistcoat was worn by just about every Gentleman and could be made from a verity of fabrics such as linen, cotton, silk, etc… it would also come in a verity of colors and styles. You might find one man wearing an embroidered waistcoat, and another wearing one more plain. The waistcoat could also be found in a verity of colors, such as red, brown, gold, or whatever your taste was. Then on top of your clothing, you’d wear a coat. The coat was worn with just about every suit and dropped down to about knee length. Upon your head, you’d be wearing another hallmark of the time, a wig. The fashion was to wear a white powdered wig. It was considered in style for the majority of the 18th Century. On top of your wig, you may wear a hat. There was a verity of style of the 18th Century hats, one of the most common which we would recognize would be the tricone, or it could also be called a cocked hat. A quick note on footwear, a Gentleman would typically wear a low heel black shoe made from leather. Boots were also worn, given the proper circumstances. I want to finish this off with the neckwear. One of the most common articles of neckwear was the cravat. The cravat was a piece of white linen which could have been worn in a verity of styles. I’ll cover the cravat more in-depth in another episode along with other clothing. I think I’ve covered the basics of a Gentleman, during the 18th Century in a social setting. I’m going to take a short break and when I get back, we’ll discuss what it meant to be a Gentleman in the Military during the 18th Century. I’ll be right back.

PART 3: Gentlemen of War


Welcome back to the show. We’ll continue our second half of this episode with Gentlemen during times of war. I think it’s obvious to say that the majority of Gentlemen during 18th Century Warfare were Officers. I’ll cover the basics and how they would interact with each other. The topic of war during the 18th Century is a whole episode in and of itself. I’ll be covering the general aspects of warfare in another episode and at some point, I’ll cover specific wars and events related to them. The question I seek to answer here is, how did the Gentlemenly Officers interact with one another. One thing which we may find surprising about the 18th Century Generals was they would keep correspondence with the opposing sides General. For example, during the American War For Independence, British General Howe, once wrote a letter to American General Washington, addressing him as, “George Washington Esquire” instead of the more properly address of “His Excellency General” and General Washington took this as a slight against him and refused to even open the letter. It was looked down upon if you sniped an Officer from a distance, or to shot one in the back. One famous story of this happened during the American Revolution. British Colonel Patrick Ferguson once came upon an American Officer talking with a Hussar. Colonel Ferguson could have shot the men in the back and would have been done with it. He was within range, and he was concealed. However, it would have been ungentlemanly to shoot a man in the back. So, Colonel Ferguson called out to the Americans. Alerting them of his presence was considered the Gentlemanly thing to do. The American Officer and the Hussar fled. It’s thought that that American Officer, was George Washington. There was something else which was unique to the European Officers, and during the 18th Century, they were able to leave one Army to go and serve another. This was an acceptable practice during the time. And because of this, a sense of comradery was built among these Officer Gentlemen. If side A surrendered to side B, then the captured Officers were typically treated well. They were typically viewed as equal Gentlemen to one another. One example of this could be seen after British General Cornwallis’s surrender during the American Revolution. The evening of the surrender, American General Washington hosted a social event for the surrendered Officers. He invited them to dinner. General Cornwallis declined the invitation, claiming to be in poor health, so he sent Brigadier General Charles O’Hara to represent him at the dinner. The proceeding nights brought about a series of these types of dinners where Officers among the Americans and French, would dine with the British and Germans. Though it should be noted that not all the American Officers were too fond of this, as most of them weren’t raised in this tradition. However, General Washington observed the European custom. One could say, it was the Gentlemanly thing to do. This brings us to the end of this segment, and now you’d think this episode would draw to a close, but I’ve prepared a bonus segment for you, Dueling.

PART 4: Dueling


I thought this would be a nice little surprise for you guys. I’m not going into the mechanics of a duel, as that will be a future episode. I’m only going to explain the reasoning behind duels, or a basic sense of their purpose. A duel was a more personal form of combat between Gentleman, and Officers. If one man’s honor was slighted by another, then the first may challenge the offender to a Duel. Dueling was illegal in most places, as it could result in death. The Duel was typically fought with either swords or firearms, typically pistols. Swords were more favored in the 17th Century but as the 18th Century came about, pistols came into fashion. There were pistols specially made just for the purpose of Dueling. There were rules to the Duels. A written version came about in 1777, known as the Code Duello. Here are a few things which you may have been challenged to a Duel for, insulting a man, a disagreement, or in the Military for accusations of cowardice. Perhaps one of the most famous Duels in history was between Aaron Burr and Alexander Hamilton. Hamilton and Burr really weren’t fans of each other in the realm of politics to oversimplify it. Though we’re stepping a little out of the 18th Century and into the early 19th Century, the story is still relevant to the topic presented. Burr had thrown his hat in for a Governorship bid, and Hamilton was publically attacked Burr’s character. Outraged by this, Burr challenged Hamilton to a Duel which was held the morning of July 11th, 1804. Hamilton fired into the air, and Burr fired at Hamilton. By the end of the whole affair, Hamilton was dead. This was just one example of Dueling as it related to Gentleman, and I’ll go more in-depth in another episode dedicated to Dueling.

OUTRO


This brings us to an end of our overview of the 18th Century Gentleman. Like I said at the beginning, the transcript and citations for this episode, and all other episodes can be found at https://18thcentury.home.blog that’s 1, 8, t h, century dot home dot blog. Type the numbers don’t spell them. I know I’ve been talking a bit more about the British and the Americans, but as the episodes go on, I’ll expand outwards to other countries as well. So, if you’d like to support the show, please share it. I’ve been your host Cj, and thank you for listening to this episode of the 18th Century Podcast.

CITATIONS

“Gentleman.” Europe, 1450 to 1789: Encyclopedia of the Early Modern World. . Encyclopedia.com. 27 May. 2019 https://www.encyclopedia.com.

Hamilton, Carol V. “Whatever Happened to the Gentleman?” History News Network, historynewsnetwork.org/article/49473.

Hennecke, Megan. “Etiquette in the Eighteenth Century.” Chuma, 20 Mar. 2006, chuma.cas.usf.edu/~runge/Etiquette.htm.

“A Colonial Gentlemen’s Clothing: A Glossary of Terms.” A Colonial Gentlemen’s Clothing: A Glossary of Terms : The Colonial Williamsburg Official History & Citizenship Site, http://www.history.org/history/clothing/men/mglossary.cfm.

“18th Century Ettiquette & Expectations.” Lovers and Liars, 6 Mar. 2013, loversandliarsmedley.wordpress.com/about/a-dramaturgs-perspective/18th-century-ettiquette-expectations/.

“How to Fight Like a Gentleman – Six Astounding Rules of War From the 18th Century.” MilitaryHistoryNow.com, 29 Nov. 2017, militaryhistorynow.com/2016/04/24/gentlemens-war-six-astounding-rules-of-fair-play-from-18th-century-battlefields/.

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