18th Century Podcast Episode 11 Cannons

Listen here: https://anchor.fm/cj123/episodes/18th-Century-Podcast-Episode-11-Cannons-e4tf12/a-akitnu


In this week’s episode we’ll be covering Cannons and a little bit about other Artillery as well. I was pressed for time this week, so my apologies for the dip in quality for this week’s episode.



Welcome back to the 18th Century Podcast, I’m your host, Cj. In today’s episode, we’ll take a look at Cannons during the 18th Century. I have high hopes this episode will explode in the podcast world. I’m sorry, I had to. If you’d like to read the script for this episode and its citations, go to 18thcentury.home.blog that’s 1, 8, t h, century dot home dot blog. Type the numbers don’t spell them. Let’s begin with how a Cannon functions.

PART 1 How A Cannon Functions

I think the most basic thing to understand about Cannons, is how they function. Let’s go over some of the parts, crew, and a drill on how to fire it. Now some of the terminology and how I will describe the drill will be a modern interpretation, but the premise remains the same. The positions of the Gun Crew are as follows: Front Left, Front Right, Rear Left, Rear Right, Powder Handler, and Gun Captain. I will now read from the National Park Service’s Manual of Instruction for the Safe Use of Reproduction 18th Century Artillery in Historic Weapons Demonstrations. I’ll be reading from their twelve steps. “#1 Form at the Rear of the Piece Members of the gun crew standing at their positions perform a ‘Right About Face’ and walk to the rear of the gun. The Powder Handler walks from his post and joins the line at the right. #2 Man the Piece Gun crew performs a ‘Right About Face’ and walk to their positions on the gun. The Powder Handler walks to his post by the ammunition chest. #3 Search Piece RR checks that vent is clear with pick and calls out “clear.” Upon hearing “clear” from RR, FL inserts the wad hook into the bore, and slides it to the breech. He then turns the shaft of the wad hook to search for any debris from previous shots. After searching, wad hook is withdrawn and FL calls out ‘clear.’ (If objects or debris are found, a second search is recommended.) #4 AdvanceSponge FR dampens sponge head in bucket and shakes off any excess moisture. (The sponge head should be damp, but not soaking wet.) The sponge is placed against the lower rim of the muzzle of the gun. #5 Tend Vent RR covers the vent thoroughly using the thumbstall, standing either ‘inside’ or ‘outside’ the wheel (depending upon the size of the gun). #6 Sponge Piece FR inserts the sponge into the bore all the way to the breech. He turns the sponge several times. FR and RR maintain eye contact as RR maintains the seal over the vent at all times. When the sponge is with-drawn, FR reverses the staff bringing the ram head against the muzzle. #7 Handle Cartridge FL hands wad hook to RL, who holds it with his left hand, keeping the linstock in his right. FL turns to his left to receive the cartridge. RL places the head of the linstock under the trail of the gun. PH opens the ammunition chest, removes one cartridge and immediately places it in the leather haversack. The chest is closed. PH moves forward, staying to the left of gun, stops at GC to inspect cartridge. PH continues forward, halts facing FL and hands him the cartridge. PH walks back to his position by the ammunition chest. FL holds the cartridge with both hands against his body and faces forward. #8 Charge Piece (or with Cartridge) FL inserts (slides) cartridge into muzzle keeping hands below muzzle. FL turns to RL and retrieves wad hook. RL keeps linstock under trail. #9 Ram Down Cartridge Using the rammer, FR pushes the car-tridge to the breech of the gun in a smooth single movement. (The ram staff is held with both hands “palms up” and thumbs along the side of the staff. When ramming, avoid “throwing” the rammer into the bore, or pounding the cartridge.) When the cartridge is seated, FR immediately withdraws the rammer and resumes his position. #10 Prime RR withdraws his thumb from the vent. Using the left hand’s thumb and forefinger only, take the priming wire (pick) and insert it into the vent hole, letting it drop onto the cartridge. Then still using only thumb and fore finger, push down and break open the cartridge, and the priming wire is removed and placed in its storage location. A quill is selected and placed into the vent again using only thumb and forefinger. RR returns to his original position. # 11 Take Aim GC advances to the breech of the gun and stands to the left of the carriage and does not stand inside the carriage cheeks. PH walks to the handspike at the trail and stands so no part of his body is directly behind the trail or handspike. GC extends his arms and locks elbows and places his palms against the breech of the gun, and aims through his upright thumbs. GC adjusts elevation or depression of barrel, and by tapping upon the cheeks of the carriage indicates to PH which direction the gun must be traversed. PH lifts the trail of the gun with the handspike to traverse it as required. When GC is satisfied with the lie of the gun, he and PH resume their places. #12 Fire GC makes eye contact with L and either with drawn sword or hand signal, gives a visual command accompanying the verbal com-mand to fire. LR brings the linstock to the vent in a smooth motion from the breech toward the muzzle, touching the primer quill with the glowing end of the burning match. Once the gun has fired, the gun captain and crew will secure the piece with the following motions:

Search Piece Advance Sponge Tend Vent Sponge Piece

At this juncture, the gun captain may command ‘Secure Piece’ and dismiss the crew.” Phew, that’s a lot of steps to get through just to fire a cannon! Now, We’re going to take a short break, and when we come back, we’ll be covering some different types of cannons of the 18th Century.

Part 2 Cannon Types

Welcome back. We’ll continue our second half of the show by going over some different types of cannons and other artillery used during the 18th Century. Let’s start off with mortars. The mortar was a small piece of artillery, with many variations. The caliber would range between 4.4 inches to 13 inches. The mortar was set at a 45-degree angle and to adjust for distance, they would use a different type of charge. The Howitzer was originally crafted to fire off bombs. It went through many changes over time, but it ended up having a short barrel while being able to fire a larger caliber. Both Howitzers and Mortars were chambered weapons. To explain what it meat that they were chambered, I’m going to quote from one of my sources, because they explain it best. This comes from americanrevolution.org, “a powder chamber was bored into the breech end of the inside of the tube which was smaller in diameter than the bore of the tube.” Now the Cannon itself has its origins in China, but it was deloped more so in Europe. In 18th Century warfare, I think it’s obvious to say that Cannon’s were prevalent during battle. The most common shot associated with Artillery was the Cannonball. If you don’t know what a Cannonball is for some reason, it’s a spherical object which is castiron. A few other types of shot used were Grapeshot, Canister shot, and Case shot. For the canister and case shots, they were each cylinder but the Canister shot was filled with iron balls, and the Case shot was filled with musket balls. Now Grapeshot had a similar idea, but instead of being made from metal, it would have a wood base and the iron or lead balls would be enclosed in a canvas bag. Grapeshot was way more effective for longer range. Grapeshot, Canister shot, and Case shot when fired all acted as a sort of shotgun once fired. The little balls would spread out the further they went. Some of the tools used for Cannons were as follows, a linestock would hold a slow-burning match which would ignite a wick to fire off the piece. A sponge would be used after a shot to make sure there was no burning powder left in the vent. A worm was a tool used to clear a Cannon from a misfire or remove debris leftover from a shot.


Again, my apologies from the first half of this episode. I thought the instructions from the National Park Service would have been presented a bit better. I skimmed over them before I recorded this episode, and I should have looked at them a little more in-depth. I was a bit rushed this week. I’ll try and do better for next weeks episode, again, my apologies. The script and citations for this episode and all other episodes can be found at https://18thcentury.home.blog that’s 1, 8, t h, century dot home dot blog. Type the numbers don’t spell them. If you’d like to support the show, please share it and leave a review. I’ve been your host Cj, and thank you for listening to this episode of the 18th Century Podcast.


Manual of Instruction for the Safe Use of Reproduction 18th Century Artillery in Historic Weapons Demonstrations. National Park Service, http://www.nps.gov/jela/upload/NPS-18th-Century-Artillery-Manual2016edition-2.pdf.

Artillery. http://www.americanrevolution.org/artillery.php.

F., Brandon. “How to Load and Fire a Cannon in the American War of Independence.” YouTube, YouTube, 24 Apr. 2018, http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=G9BiQv6gMLA.

18th Century Podcast Episode 10 The Enlightenment

Painting of The Enlightenment

Listen here: https://anchor.fm/cj123/episodes/18th-Century-Podcast-Episode-10-The-Enlightenment-e4qupp/a-ak3oke


The Enlightenment is perhaps one of the most important philosophical and scientific movements in history. In today’s episode we cover a brief history of The Enlightenment, we go over some of it’s core ideas, and we’ll do a mini bio for John Locke.



Welcome back to the 18th Century Podcast, I am your host Cj. In today’s episode, we’ll be covering one of the most important topics of the 18th Century, The Enlightenment. We’ll be going over a brief history and some of the Philosophers and their ideas in this episode. If you’d like to read the script for this episode and its citations, go to 18thcentury.home.blog that’s 1, 8, t h, century dot home dot blog. Type the numbers don’t spell them. Let’s begin with a brief history of, The Englightenment.


The Englightenment, also known as, The Age Of Reason, began in the 17th Century. The ideas brought forth during this time will be carried over into the 18th Century and hold great influence. The Enlightenment would hold sway over many different aspects of life, such as philosophy, politics, science, etc… During my research for this episode, I found many contesting points declaring when the enlightenment began. The earliest of which started with Francis Bacon in 1620, with his publication of Novum Organum. In 1651, Thomas Hobbes would publish his book, Leviathan. In the book, he would argue, in simplest terms, for absolute monarchy. The idea of social contract theory would find its root’s with Hobbes as well. Then jumping forward to the 1680s we see two important texts published. The fist is Principia Mathematica, by Isiac Newton in 1686. The second is, Essay Concerning Human Understanding, by John Locke in 1689. A year later John Locke would publish arguably his most important contribution to The Enlightenment, his Second Treatise On Government. Then from the 1730s-1780s, we get a bulk of Enlightenment texts. We’ll see the writings of Montesquieu, Voltaire, Rousseau, Smith, Kant, and many others as well. In 1748, Montesquieu would put forth his political work, The Spirit of the Laws. Then in 1762, Rousseau would publish his work, On the Social Contract. On March 9th of 1776, Adam Smith’s, The Wealth of Nations is published. This would mark one of the most interesting economic texts was only a few months off from the Declaration of Independence. Then heading towards the 1780s, we get the work of Immanuel Kant. What’s interesting about The Englightenment is the fact that it’s pretty much a decades-long conversation between philosophers. The Enlightenment would span across Europe and the Americas. Now that I’ve covered a very brief history, I think it’s time that we take a closer look into some of the ideas of, Then Enlightenment.


Let’s kick things off with arguably the most influential ideas of The Enlightenment, politics. When The Enlightenment begins, we see absolute monarchy being espoused by philosophers. Yet as the decades start moving forward, they begin to tend towards Republicanism. In Thomas Hobbes’s Leviathan, he purposed the idea of the divine right of kings. The basic idea of this is, Kings are appointed by God and thus are justified to rule over others. I think it’s obvious to say that this type of doctrine would be popular with absolute monarchs. Yet, when John Locke came in with his two treatises on government, it was basically a refutation of the idea of the divine right of kings. Also from Locke, we get more development in the area of Natural Rights. Locke would come to argue for the Natural Rights of life, liberty, and property. Locke was also a proponent of Natural Law. Then with Montesquieu, we get the idea of a few different forms of government which he lists as Republics, Monarchies, and Despotisms. I would like to note that we get more of the modern view of Republicanism from Montesquieu, which in the modern vernacular would be a Representative Democracy. If you went to school in the United States, you were probably taught about this idea. Yet as a fun fact, this idea of Republicanism as presented by Montesquieu clashes with a more classical approach as presented by Cicero. Cicero would have described a Republic as a mixed form of government which combines aspects of monarchy, democracy, and aristocracy into one system which balances itself. I thought it would be interesting to share how definitions and ideas change over time, and this was one great example. Now with Rousseau, he presents the idea of The Social Contract. The Social contract was introduced before, but he refined the idea. He would contrast with Locke’s view more so, by being in favor of direct democracy as his view on the best way to govern society. The political works of The Enlightenment influenced the American Revolution and the French Revolution. Now moving forward to the field of economics, I think it’s safe to say, Adam Smith’s, The Wealth of Nations, is perhaps the most influential economic work out of the 18th Century. It introduced the world to the economic idea of Capitalism. From then on, it revolutionized the world. Many schools of thought on economics have sprung up since Smith’s work. On the scientific side of things, we saw many advancements. The basis of the modern Scientific Method began to form. Newton made advancements in mathematics and the study of gravity. The discovery of the planet Uranus by William Herschel occurred. Also, the mass of the Sun was calculated. You would also see Benjamin Franklin’s work with electricity. Now regarding the religious side of, The Enlightenment, there were many developments too. The most prominent view associated with this period would probably be, Deism. The Deistic view is that there is God, and God did create the universe but does not interfere with the going on’s of it. The other idea of Deism was that God could be known through reason. I might make an episode in the future of Deism since it’s a pretty fascinating topic. But also during, The Enlightenment was a greater sense of religious tolerance. You see an expansion of Protestantism during the period as well. I believe what I presented here covers some of the most basic and widespread views of, The Enlightenment. Now, I’m going to take a short break, and when I come back we’ll take a brief look into the life of John Locke.

PART 3:A Brief Bio of John Locke

Welcome back to the 18th Century Podcast. We’ll continue our second half of the show by taking a brief look into the life of John Locke. John Locke was born on August 29th, 1632. He was born in Wrington, Somerset, England, and grew up in Pensford, which was close to Bristol. John’s father was a lawyer and a Calvery Capitan during the English Civil Wars. After the first Civil War, John’s father secured a spot for his son at Westminster School, in London. John would attend the school when he was only 14 years old. Though John was gifted in academics and elected as a King’s Scholar in 1650, he would come to despise the school system. He disapproved of corporal punishment, and some of the behavior of the students as well. In 1693 he would put pen to paper and give his thoughts on education, arguing for a private tutor over boarding schools. When he was 20 years old, he attended Christ Church, at Oxford. In 1663, John was appointed senior censor in Christ Church, which among his duties were to oversee undergraduates and give lectures. Locke eventually became a member of the Royal Society and began to study medicine. In 1675 Locke traveled to France after losing favor with King Charles II. By the time he left for France, John had earned his bachelors degree in medicine from Oxford. During his time in France, he would befriend the intellectuals and protestants. He would head home in 1679. In September of 1683, Locke would make his way to Holland. The reason being was that John’s friend a few years prior was being closely watched by the English Government and fled to Holland, which the friend died in 1683. John himself was being closely watched by the English government at the time too. John would stay in Holland for the next serval years. He returned to England in February of 1689. He became more involved in politics under the newly crowned Queen Mary II. John would assist in writing the English Bill of Rights. He spent his final years with friends and continuing with his writing. John Locke died on October 28th, 1704.


The Enlightenment was probably one of the greatest philosophical movements in history. I would have liked to have made this episode a bit longer, but I didn’t have enough time this week, my apologies. The script and citations for this episode and all other episodes can be found at https://18thcentury.home.blog that’s 1, 8, t h, century dot home dot blog. Type the numbers don’t spell them. If you’d like to support the show, please share it and leave a review. I’ve been your host Cj, and thank you for listening to this episode of the 18th Century Podcast.


Duignan, Brian. “Enlightenment.” Encyclopædia Britannica, Encyclopædia Britannica, Inc., 29 Mar. 2019, http://www.britannica.com/event/Enlightenment-European-history.

Bristow, William, “Enlightenment”, The Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy (Fall 2017 Edition), Edward N. Zalta (ed.), URL = https://plato.stanford.edu/archives/fall2017/entries/enlightenment/.

“Age of Enlightenment.” New World Encyclopedia, . 8 Feb 2019, 17:14 UTC. 29 Jul 2019, 22:22 .

Editors, History.com. “Enlightenment.” History.com, A&E Television Networks, 16 Dec. 2009, http://www.history.com/topics/british-history/enlightenment.

Szalay, Jessie. “What Was the Enlightenment?” LiveScience, Purch, 7 July 2016, http://www.livescience.com/55327-the-enlightenment.html.

Blenman, Joy. “Adam Smith and ‘The Wealth of Nations.’” Investopedia, Investopedia, 26 July 2019, http://www.investopedia.com/updates/adam-smith-wealth-of-nations/.

Tuckness, Alex, “Locke’s Political Philosophy”, The Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy (Summer 2018 Edition), Edward N. Zalta (ed.), URL = https://plato.stanford.edu/archives/sum2018/entries/locke-political/.

“Charles De Secondat, Baron De Montesquieu.” Charles De Secondat, Baron De Montesquieu – New World Encyclopedia, http://www.newworldencyclopedia.org/entry/Charles_de_Secondat,_baron_de_Montesquieu.

Clayton, Edward. “Cicero (106—43 B.C.E.).” Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy, http://www.iep.utm.edu/cicero/#SH7c.

“Experiments with Electricity.” Benjamin Franklin Historical Society, http://www.benjamin-franklin-history.org/experiments-with-electricity/.

Rogers, Graham A.J. “John Locke.” Encyclopædia Britannica, Encyclopædia Britannica, Inc., 26 June 2019, http://www.britannica.com/biography/John-Locke.

18th Century Podcast: Episode 8 Frederick The Great

Frederick the Great

Listen here: https://anchor.fm/cj123/episodes/18th-Century-Podcast-Episode-8-Frederick-The-Great-e4l311/a-aivkbv


In this episode of the 18th Century Podcast we’re going to take a look at the life of Frederick the Great. We’ll take a look at the early life of this Prussian Monarch, his accession to the Throne, the War of Austiran Secession, the Seven Years War, some Domestic Policy, his Personal Life, and his Death. This man was a fascinating figure and a true pleasure to research.



Thank you for returning to the 18th Century Podcast, I am your host Cj. In today’s episode, we’ll be looking at the life of the Prussian King, Frederick the Great. This will act as an overarching guide to his life. Certain wars or other events Frederick the Great was involved in maybe covered more in-depth in future episodes. The purpose of this episode is to look at his life and who he was in a short biography. If you’d like to read the script for this episode and its citations, go to 18thcentury.home.blog that’s 1, 8, t h, century dot home dot blog. Type the numbers don’t spell them. Fredrick the Great is one of the most towering figures of the 18th Century. Let’s get into the birth and childhood of a King.


Frederick the Great, young

Frederick the Great was born on January 24th, 1712 in Berlin. Frederick was born into the Hohenzollern family. His parents were King Frederick William I of Prussia and Princess Sophia Dorothea of Hanover. His mother was the daughter of King George I of Great Britan, her brother would later become King George II. His parent’s relationship was more political than romantic. In actuality, you could describe them as polar opposites. Frederick’s father was known as a “Soldier-King” who gave way to his temper. To provide an example of how bad his temper could get imagine a very angry man hitting you in the face with his cane, or if you are a woman walking down the street the King flat out kicks you. I think you could imagine how stern Frederick’s father was. On the other hand, his mother was very liberal with him. During Frederick the Great’s younger years in his education, it was very polarized. He was brought up among French Protestant governesses and tutors. He began to receive his education in subjects such as French, German, Poetry, Classical Literature, Philosophy and would acquire a taste for Italian Music. This early education was more of the influence of his mother. It’s safe to say at the very least, Frederick’s father was highly displeased with his son and heir receiving this type of education, especially in such a militarized society as Prussia. His father wanted him to indulge in more masculine activities for his education such as hunting, riding, and the military. Fredrick William I would have his son subjugated to being humiliated, and beaten which left the young Frederick the Great bloody. As time went on in his youth, Frederick the Great would draw closer with his sister, Wilhelmine. They would form a bond which would last a lifetime. When young Frederick came of age, he received a position in the military as a Junior Army Officer. He eventually befriended a young 22-year-old Hans Hermann Von Katte, who was the son of a General. Frederick and Katte had shared interests in French culture, such as literature and in music. The two of them grew closer. When Frederick was 18, Katte, Frederick, and a few other Junior Army Officers hatched a plan to run off to England. Unfortunately, their plan hopeful plan would end in tragedy. As the plan was set in motion, they were caught and promptly arrested. Frederick and Katte found themselves being accused of treason by their attempt to flee the country. Yes, the Crown-Prince of Prussia was being accused of treason against Prussia. I should note that there was a possibility that young Frederick and Katte were working with Britain to conspire against King Frederick William I. The two of them were stripped of rank and imprisoned. There was a chance Frederick could receive the death penalty, and his father, the King, wasn’t opposed to ruling it out. However, Frederick was lucky to survive the executioner’s block. His friend Katte was not as lucky. The date of execution for Hans Hermann Von Katte was November 6th, 1730. As Katte stepped out in the open air to meet his fate, Fredrick called out from behind bars to his friend, “My dear Katte, a thousand apologies.” Katte was said to have replied, “My prince, there is nothing to apologize for.” Frederick had fainted before the killing blow. He remained in prison for the next year by order of his father. During his time in prison, Frederick would befriend a couple of his fellow inmates. One of his prison friends, Michael Gabriel Fredersdorf, the son of a peasant, would eventually rise through the ranks once Frederick was crowned and become Chancellor of Prussia. Once Frederick was released, he was posted as a junior official at a local administration, without his military rank. In 1733 Frederick regained his title of Crown-Prince by marrying Elisabeth Christine von Braunschweig-Bevern on June 12th. The arranged marriage by King Frederick William I was not fruitful. In fact, Frederick the Great had little to do with his wife, they did not garner romance nor friendship. In 1734 Frederick would once again take part in the Army, and this time he would see action. He would serve under an Austrian, Eugene of Savoy, fighting against the French in the Rhineland. His father would give his son a castle, Rheinsberg which was north of Berlin. In his free time there, Frederick would be able to pursue his own interests such as composing music, playing the flute, watching plays, reading, writing, and similar activities. This period in his life would be remembered as a happy one. In 1739 Frederick finished writing a response to the ever so popular book, The Prince by Machiavelli. It was a sort of refutation of the ideas presented in Machiavelli’s book. Everything was going fine for our young Frederick, but then in 1740, everything changed. Prussia was about to get a new King.


Frederick the Great in War

May 31st, 1740, the King in Prussia, Frederick William I, is dead. Our young Frederick had just inherited the throne. In his early days as King, Frederick would dominate his ministers. They would know, he’s in charge and setting policy. Frederick had a goal in mind, and that was to unite his lands. You see, at the time, part of Prussian territory laid within the Holy Roman Empire, and part of it was external of the Empire. This more or less was a problem. Being the sovereign over different lands, where you’re subject to an Emperor, but at the same time, a King in different territory caused some conflict. Frederick wanted to unify his lands into one Prussian State. Merely a few months after gaining the throne, Frederick would get his chance. On October 20th, of the same year, the Holy Roman Emperor, Charles VI died. He had left his daughter, Archduchess Maria Theresa as the heir. I would like to note, Charles VI was a member of the Habsburg family. Maria’s claims were somewhat disputed, her government was weak, and her only real major supporter was Russia. Frederick hoped that Maria would cede the territory of Silesia, a region of Southwestern Poland, in return for Prussian support. This didn’t turn out so well. Frederick marched his army into Silesia, in late 1740. He justified this invasion by an old treaty from 1537. This action of invasion would kick off the War of the Austrian Succession, and First Silesian War. Then in April of 1741, Frederick would receive his first military victory at the battle of Mollwitz. Maria was also facing a coalition of French, Spanish, and Bavarians. She signed a temporary peace with Prussia. Frederick would be allowed to hold Silesia so long as hostilities ceased. As time marched on, Maria found success against the French and Bavarians. Frederick was offset by these actions and in 1742, he invaded a region South of Silesia, Moravia, which was under Austrian control. Frederick would gain victory once more, and this action would force Maria to sign the Treaty of Berlin, a peace treaty with Frederick in July of 1742. The treaty allowed Prussia to stay in Silesia, but in return, Frederick had to help provide defense against French, Spanish and Bavarian forces. As the war went on, Maria would gain more in power and victory against her enemies. Frederick was alarmed by this once more, and in August of 1744, he invaded Bohemia. He was met with success and he overtook the region. Polish elector Agustus III, allied himself with Maria and the two of them invaded Prussian held Silesia. Due to the strength and discipline of his Army, Frederick won twice against the invaders. The first would occur in June, and the second in September 1745. Frederick would then respond by invading Saxony, which was controlled by Agustus III. The fighting would come to an end on December 25, 1745, with the Treaty of Dresden. Silesia was officially in Frederick’s control. There were benefits to holding Silesia, chiefly among them were the regions economic advantages. After the war, Frederick would receive the title of Frederick the Great. On the homefront after the war, Frederick made some changes in his domestic policy. There was more toleration of religious freedom, reforms in the justice system, and more freedom to the press. These reforms aligned more closely with enlightenment values. Meanwhile back with Maria, she was not so chipper about losing her territory, and after careful political maneuvers, she was forming an alliance with France and Russia. Yet again unhappy with this turn of events, Frederick decided to do the logical thing and preemptively attack. During peacetime, Frederick built up his Army to 154,000 men strong. He moved his army into Saxony. This would occur during the beginning of the Seven Years War. Among Frederick’s allies were Britain, and Hanover. He would be up against Austria, France, Russia, Sweden, and Saxony. Fredericks campaign was met with initial success in Agust of 1756, and he continued onwards into Bohemia. Bohemia was less successful, and in June 1757, he was being pushed back. He did start to get victories in November and December against the Austrians and the French. The British started to subsidize the Prussian Military in 1758 and would continue to do so through 1762. Between 1758 to 1760 Frederick would face a mixture of victories and defeats. In 1760 Austro-Russian forces had captured and occupied Berlin. Frederick was devastated by this, and he contemplated suicide. There must have been a change in the wind because lady luck turned towards his favor. The Empress of Russia died in January 1762, and Peter III ascended the Czardom. Czar Peter III had admiration for Federick. In May Prussia and Russia signed an armistice agreement. Treaty negotiations would begin, and they turned unfavorable towards Maria. Her wishes of reclaiming Silesia were dashed. Then on February 15th, 1763, the Treaty of Hubertusburg was signed. Prussia would hold onto its territory, and its reputation as a military power was cemented. Yet during the war, Frederick would lose 180,000 men. Wanting to avoid another war at such a scale, Frederick would sign a treaty in 1764, forming an alliance with Russia. This alliance would span 16 years and come to a close in 1780. Now, we’re going to take a short break and when we come back we’ll take a look at the next major event Frederick was involved in, the first partition of Poland.


Frederick the Great 1772 at the first Partition of Poland

Welcome back, everyone. Poland, everyone wants a piece of Poland. I don’t know why, but it seems like all throughout their history, everyone has wanted a piece of Poland at one point or another. This next chapter in the life of Frederick the Great begins with Russia. After the murder of Peter III, Catherine II ascended the Russian Throne. Unlike Peter III, Catherine II was not such a fan of Prussia. Though Frederick and Catherine disliked each other, they did form an alliance on April 11th, 1764, as mentioned prior. The alliance would guarantee Prussia’s control over Silesia, and Prussia agreed to back Russia if they came into conflict with the Austrians or Ottomans. In September of 1764, Catherine’s candidate for the throne of Poland was elected. Catherine’s Russia began to gain more and more influence over Poland in 1767. This disturbed Frederick. The winter of 1770 to 1771, Frederick’s brother Henry acted as a representative of Prussia in St. Petersburg. Catherine was looking to expand her borders into Southeastern Europe. However, there was great Austrian opposition to this policy. Frederick was looking to expand his territory as well. Austria also wished to expand their territory but they wanted to reclaim Silesia, or land in the Balkans. Through careful maneuvering, Henry convinced Catherine to partake in a partition of Poland, and ditch expansion into Southeastern Europe. Eventually, his brother also convinced Austria to join in as well. There was concern over the balance of power in the region, but Henry convinced the three States that expanding their territory by slicing off bits of Poland would ensure the balance. Frederick had his eyes on West Prussia, to finally unite Prussia into one State. Though the inhabitants of West Prussia were predominately Polish. In 1771 Frederick would speak his disdain for the Polish State and it’s people to Voltaire. He considered the citizens of West Prussia to be uncivilized. Then in 1772, it happened, Frederick annexed West Prussia and united the two Prussia’s into one Kingdom. Frederick had gained 20,000 square miles of land. Frederick encouraged Germans to immigrate into the newly acquired territory with the goal of displacing the local Polish population. German officials would also look down upon the Polish populace. Ironically, Frederick would eventually befriend a few Poles.


Frederick the Great performing music

Now turning towards his domestic achievements, a bit about his personal life, and his final years. Frederick the Great viewed his service as King as a duty. It was one of the few things he had in common with his father. Personally, Frederick probably hated his father, but looking at King Frederick William I as a ruler, he appreciated what he did, in particular for the Military. During his time, the Prussian education system was marveled at in Europe. Under his reign, there was an expansion of agricultural development. They would drain swamps to make way for new farmland. Also, the potato and turnip were introduced as crops. He did slightly favor indirect taxes on imported goods over direct taxes on the populace. During the Seven Years War, the Prussian currency had decreased in value, which had led to higher prices domestically. To regain their currency’s value, the Mint Edict of May 1763 was proposed. The Prussian government began to accept taxes at its prewar value. This would lower the money supply, but the overall value of their currency increased. There were also several architectural achievements which occurred during his reign, some of which still exist in Berlin. For example St. Hedwig’s Cathedral, the Royal Library which goes under a different name today, and the Berlin State Opera. If you remember back in the first section of this episode, I mentioned Frederick had an interest in music, and he played the flute. For the flute, he had composed around 100 sonatas and 4 symphonies. In 1738 Frederick joined the Freemasons. He would also strike up a friendship with Voltaire. They mostly corresponded through letters, but Voltaire did visit Frederick between 1750 through 1753. The two of them did have a falling out but reconciled some years later. Frederick was a polyglot, speaking German, French, Spanish, Portuguese, Italian, and English. He also had a workable understanding of Ancient and Modern Greek, Latin, and Hebrew. His love of French culture continued throughout his life, preferring it over his native German. As Frederick got older, he began to withdraw from society. He would of course, still perform his official functions as Monarch, but socially, he began to prefer time with his greyhounds over people. Then on August 17th, 1786, Frederick the Great, died. He was buried next to his greyhounds.


I found the life of Frederick the Great to be a fascinating tale. He had a rough childhood, but he did wonderous things for his people. Like all figures through history, he wasn’t perfect, but there is no denying his accomplishments. As a bonus, I’ve added some of Frederick’s music to the bottom of the script page for this episode, click the link in the description. The script and citations for this episode and all other episodes can be found at https://18thcentury.home.blog that’s 1, 8, t h, century dot home dot blog. Type the numbers don’t spell them. If you’d like to support the show, please share it and leave a review. I’ve been your host Cj, and thank you for listening to this episode of the 18th Century Podcast.


Anderson, Matthew Smith. “Frederick II.” Encyclopædia Britannica, Encyclopædia Britannica, Inc., 7 June 2019, http://www.britannica.com/biography/Frederick-II-king-of-Prussia.

Biography.com Editors. “Frederick II.” Biography.com, A&E Networks Television, 17 Apr. 2019, http://www.biography.com/political-figure/frederick-ii.

“Frederick II of Prussia.” Frederick II of Prussia – New World Encyclopedia, 10 May 2017, http://www.newworldencyclopedia.org/entry/Frederick_II_of_Prussia.

Editors, History.com. “Frederick II.” History.com, A&E Television Networks, 9 Nov. 2009, http://www.history.com/topics/germany/frederick-ii-prussia.

Slaughter, Jamie. “Frederick the Great.” George Washington’s Mount Vernon, http://www.mountvernon.org/library/digitalhistory/digital-encyclopedia/article/frederick-the-great/.

Smee, Taryn. “King Frederick the Great Was a Runaway Teen.” The Vintage News, 25 Aug. 2018, http://www.thevintagenews.com/2018/08/25/frederick-the-great/.

18th Century Podcast: Episode 7 Games & Gambling

Listen here: https://anchor.fm/cj123/episodes/18th-Century-Podcast-Episode-7-Games–Gambling-e4jt59/a-aiono7


In this episode We’ll be taking a look at games and gambling during the 18th Century. Many games they played in the 18th Century are still played today, but some have fallen out of fashion. Gambling was somewhat looked down upon, yet it was still very popular during the time. This was very interesting to research and I hope you enjoy this episode.



Welcome back to the 18th Century Podcast, I’m your host Cj. In today’s episode, we’ll take a step back from the weaponry and warfare of the time and look at something a little more lighthearted depending upon your view, games, and gambling during the 18th Century. If you’d like to read the script for this episode and its citations, go to https://18thcentury.home.blog that’s 1, 8, t h, century dot home dot blog. Type the numbers don’t spell them. The first half of the show today will be about the games, which will include board and card games, but I’ll also throw in a section for sports too, and the second half will be about gambling. Alright, let’s get into it!


I think it’s safe to say games have been popular throughout most of human history. The 18th Century is no exception. You would find people playing games very familiar to us such as Chess, Backgammon, a verity of Card Games, also Checkers but at the time it was referred to as Draughts. Another game which you might have heard of was Nine Men’s Morris. If you play video games, you may have come across Nine Men’s Morris in the game Assassins Creed 3. One children’s game which we still play today is Horseshoes. Though I would say it was more popular back in the 18th Century rather than the 21st Century. A popular card game of the time was Whist. You could find the game of Whist being played at upper society. Now unlike how I was just rattling off games to start this segment, I’m going to explain how to Whist as best as I can, so you can try it at home if you’d like. To play this game you’ll need a standard 52 card deck, and four players. The game is played in teams of two. Aces are high in this game. The person across from you is your teammate. If you’d like you could choose your own partner, or let the cards decide. If you’d like for the cards to decide your partner, cut the cards and have each player draw a card. The two highest cards will be paired together. Start off by having a dealer shuffle the cards. Once the shuffle is complete, the player to his right will cut the cards. After which the dealer will distribute the cards to his or her left going clockwise facedown. Each player should receive 13 cards. When the dealer comes to the last card, which he would deal to himself, the dealer turns over the last card for everyone to see. What every the suit of the card is, becomes what is known as the trump. After everyone has seen the card, the dealer places it in his hand. Each round of play is called a trick. Play occurs clockwise, and the person to the dealers left lays the first card. Continuing clockwise, each player lays one card of the same suit as the first card played. Whoever played the highest card, wins the trick. If you do not have a card matching the suit played, only then can you play a card of a different suit. However, if you play a card which was the trump’s suit, and no other player played a trump, then you would win the trick. In the event that two or more players play a card from the trump suit, the trick would go to the highest valued trump card. After all thirteen tricks of the deck are played, the team with the most number of combined tricks, scores one point. You can use a token or a chip to keep track of points. Now the dealer would repeat the shuffle and thirteen tricks would be played once more. Before the game begins, have the players select a certain number of points for a team to win the game. For example, the winning score could be, 5 points, 7 points, or whatever score your heart desires. There are a couple of additional rules which you should be aware of, and after I provide them, I’ll run through two tricks just to give the gist of the game. There are two additional ways to change the score of the game. The first way is to receive honor points. If you and your teammate both have a combination of the Jack, Queen, King, and Ace of the trump suit, you would call honors before the play of the next hand. If you and your teammate have three of the four cards, you receive two points, and if you have all four, you receive four points. The final thing which you should be aware of is, Revokes. Let’s say one of your opponents has played the wrong suit and they still have cards for the suit played if you or your teammate notices this and it’s not corrected by the end of the trick, you call Revoke, at that point one of two things happens, you could either add three points to your score, or remove three points from theirs. Let’s run through two sample hands. The trump suit is hearts. The first player plays a Jack of Clubs, then as you go around, what’s played is King of Clubs, two of Clubs, six of Clubs. The person who played the King of Clubs would win the trick and set the played cars aside. Then the winner would start the next trick. Let’s say they played the eight of spades, then going around the ten of spades is played, then the four of hearts, and then the seven of spades. The person who played the four of hearts would win since they played a card from the trump suit, so long as they didn’t have any spades to play. That’s how you play Whist. Long winded I know. If you listened to this on the podcast I highly encourage you to go to the link in the episode description and read the script to review the rules of the game for when you play. There’s one more thing I’d like to mention about these types of games in the 18th Century, and that’s Game Tables. Compared to modern game tables, the game tables of the 18th Century were quite different. There were multiple layers to these tables. They would be extended by being folded out to play games such as chess, cards, or even backgammon. Each layer of such a table was specifically designed for certain games. Such tables could be found across Europe and in parts of the Americas. When I went on my trip to Virginia I saw a few tables specifically designed for games, and it was quite interesting. From what I remember typically these kinds of tables would be used when you’d have guests over, or if you were hosting somebody. It’s interesting how compact they could be. If memory serves me correctly, they could be folded up and placed in a trunk for travel too. There are many games which carried over from the 18th Century, but Sports is another story.


How we view sports today, and how sports were viewed in the 18th Century were quite similar in some instances, and quite different in others. If you’re from the United States or if you love horse racing, you’re probably heard of the Kentucky Derby. No, they did not have the Kentucky Derby in the 18th Century, but horse racing was popular in England and the Colonies. During the 18th Century, we could find wealthy Aristocrats breeding horses specifically for racing. Boxing was starting to come more into form during the 18th Century as well. As one could imagine, this was a sport more reserved for the lower classes of society at the time. Boxing didn’t have the modern rules of today, but the roots of them can be seen in parts of the 18th Century. One sport I was surprised to learn about was that they had bowling. Yes, bowling was in the 18th Century and turns out its origins date back earlier. We could find fishing clubs in the Americas during the early half of the Century. Though sport fishing was being popularized in England the Century prior. One of the most synonymous sports with the 18th Century would probably be fox hunting. It could be said it was most popular among the upper classes in England, but it also caught on in the Americas for a time. The basic overview of a fox hunt is as follows, horseback riders follow their hounds as the dogs hunt down a fox. In the Americas, the fox hunting season began in the Fall. Men such as George Washington participated. I’ll delve into this topic more in an episode dedicated to hunting and fishing during the 18th Century. Another modern sport, but with different rules, you could find is Tennis. Tennis would be played across Europe in countries such as England or France for example. The sport was played by both men and women. It was at its height in popularity during the middle of the Century. If a player got good at Tennis, they could gain notoriety and a certain level of fame along with some decent pay. Now, I’m going to take a short break, and when I come back, we’ll get into a very interesting topic for the time, gambling.


Welcome back. For our final section today, let’s discuss gambling. I’ll jump right into it. For the lower classes gambling could be found at places like taverns or coffeehouses. In some taverns cockfights were popular. This would be were two chickens would fight either to the death or until one of them could go no further. The spectators would bet on the outcome. Gambling could have also occurred over boxing matches as mentioned earlier. Other tavern games were most likely gambled upon as well. Such as some card or dice games. During the 18th Century, we start to see an expansion of casinos. At the beginning of the Century, many places had outlawed gambling, but as time marched on, these sorts of laws would be revoked. In 1762 Spa, Belgium the second oldest casino opened its doors. The Redoute casino in Belgium is still open to this day, but it operates under a different name. During the 1770s, two additional casinos opened in Europe. One of which was in France, and another in Belgium. One of the classic casino games, roulette, can find it’s more modern origins in the late 1790s. It wasn’t how we would picture the wheel today, but more or less, this is when the modern game got started. During the 1790s in France, there was a boom in gambling. Though gambling had been popular earlier in the Century for France. Under the reign of King Louis XV who reigned officially from 1723 until his death in 1774, gambling found a small home at Salons. A Salon was very different from the modern place where women get their hair cut. Back in 18th Century France, it was a place for often the nobility to come and have intellectual discussions. For the wealthy French, gambling was an outlet to flaunt their wealth. What’s ironic about flaunting their wealth gambling away their money was this, they did not like people who gloated. You could say it was viewed in poor taste. Gambling in Paris was luxury. Now crossing the channel and heading over to England there was a slightly different approach to gambling and some hypocrisy. The English loved to bet. If there was a conflict of any sort whether it be backgammon or a battle, there probably was a bet at some point. Here’s where the hypocrisy came in, in London gambling was being pushed out of traditional places such as taverns and coffeehouses. See the conflict in attitude? But then special gambling houses or clubs would be opened instead, I guess it works itself out in the end. The famous John Montagu, Earl of Sandwich, opened one such establishment called, White’s. If the name John Montagu, Earl of Sandwich, sounds familiar it’s because he was said to have invented the delicious food we know today. Again, these casinos were more geared towards the wealthy and the nobility, the same as in France. Moving forward to the British Colonies in the Americas, gambling was very popular. However, casinos didn’t open, due to the fact that there wasn’t a large enough base of people yet to support them. Gambling occurred in the American Revolution in both Militaries. George Washington and some British Officers both had complaints in turn about their men gambling. The attitude was very mixed in the 18th Century. Gambling was somewhat looked down upon, but at the same time, it was very popular.


This brings us to the end on our dive into Games & Gambling during the 18th Century. I found this a fascinating topic to research. The script and citations for this episode and all other episodes can be found at https://18thcentury.home.blog that’s 1, 8, t h, century dot home dot blog. Type the numbers don’t spell them. If you’d like to support the show, please share it and leave a review. I’ve been your host Cj, and thank you for listening to this episode of the 18th Century Podcast.


Grace, Maria. “A Salon Guest… Toys and Games of the Long 18th Century.” A Salon Guest… Toys and Games of the Long 18th Century, 16 Jan. 2014, http://www.madamegilflurt.com/2014/01/toys-and-games-of-long-18th-century.html.

Smith, Cynthia. “Children’s Games in the 18th Century.” Synonym, 3 Oct. 2017, classroom.synonym.com/childrens-games-in-the-18th-century-13583117.html.

Walton, Geri. “Whist in the Georgian and Regency Eras.” Geri Walton, 30 May 2019, http://www.geriwalton.com/georgian-and-regency-whis/.

“Eighteenth Century Resources.” Whist – Eighteenth Century Resources, http://www.eighteenthcentury.net/whist.

“Game Table.” Metmuseum.org, http://www.metmuseum.org/art/collection/search/232203.

“1754-1783: Sports and Recreation: Overview.” American Eras. . Encyclopedia.com. 11 Jul. 2019 https://www.encyclopedia.com.

Smucker, Philip G. “Foxhunting.” George Washington’s Mount Vernon, http://www.mountvernon.org/george-washington/facts/athleticism/foxhunting/.

Murden, Sarah. “Anyone for 18th Century Tennis?” All Things Georgian, 3 July 2018, georgianera.wordpress.com/2018/02/20/anyone-for-18th-century-tennis/.

Guy, History. “The History of Casinos in Europe.” The History Guy: 25 June 2016, historyguy.com/history_casinos_in_europe.html.

Britannica, The Editors of Encyclopaedia. “Louis XV.” Encyclopædia Britannica, Encyclopædia Britannica, Inc., 6 May 2019, http://www.britannica.com/biography/Louis-XV.

“Salons.” Europe, 1450 to 1789: Encyclopedia of the Early Modern World. . Encyclopedia.com. 12 Jul. 2019 https://www.encyclopedia.com.

Portner, Jessica. “Paris Gamblers: Gaming in 18th-Century France.” The Getty Iris, 27 June 2017, blogs.getty.edu/iris/paris-gamblers-gaming-in-18th-century-france/.

Crews, Ed. “Gambling.” Gambling : The Colonial Williamsburg Official History & Citizenship Site, http://www.history.org/Foundation/journal/Autumn08/gamble.cfm.

18th Century Podcast: Episode 6 British Platoon Exercise 1764

Listen here: https://anchor.fm/cj123/episodes/18th-Century-Podcast-Episode-6-British-Platoon-Exercise-1764-e4afov/a-agvhbh


I have a special treat for you today! I’ll be reading from, A New Manual, And Platoon Exercise: With An Explanation. It’s a 1764 British Platoon exercise written by Adjutant General, Edward Harvey. I hope to give you a glimpse into the training of British forces during this time period.



Welcome back to the 18th Century Podcast, I’m your host Cj. In today’s episode, I have a special treat for you guys. Remember all the way back to episode 1 when I talked about my Virginia trip? Well, when I was at Colonial Williamsburg, I picked up a 1764 British Platoon Exercise Manual written by Adjutant General Edward Harvey. It’s a short little manual, and I’ll be reading it today. I hope this will give you a glimpse at the training of 18th Century Infantry training. When we get into future episodes on certain wars or battles, I hope this episode could provide some context to what the soldiers were doing on commands. The break today will be taken after command 35, and when we come back we’ll get into the last two portions of the manual. If you’d like to read the script for this episode and its citations, go to https://18thcentury.home.blog that’s 1, 8, t h, century dot home dot blog. Type the numbers don’t spell them. Alright guys, let’s get into the manual!



I hope this gave you a bit of an insight into the training of a British Platoon in the 18th Century. I do have a treat for you, if you go onto the website, link in the description of this episode, and click on the post for this podcast episode, scroll to the bottom and I’ve placed a video there of someone performing this exercise. I found it off of youtube, and it’s pretty interesting. the script and citations for this episode and all other episodes can be found at https://18thcentury.home.blog that’s 1, 8, t h, century dot home dot blog. Type the numbers don’t spell them. If you’d like to support the show, please share it. I’ve been your host Cj, and thank you for listening to this episode of the 18th Century Podcast.



Bonus! A video of the 1764 British Platoon Exercise!

18th Century Podcast: Episode 5 Bonus! A Reading Of The Declaration Of Independence

Listen here: https://anchor.fm/cj123/episodes/18th-Century-Podcast-Episode-5-Bonus–A-Reading-Of-The-Declaration-Of-Independence-e4d6sq/a-ahdibq

In Congress, July 4, 1776.

The unanimous Declaration of the thirteen united States of America, When in the Course of human events, it becomes necessary for one people to dissolve the political bands which have connected them with another, and to assume among the powers of the earth, the separate and equal station to which the Laws of Nature and of Nature’s God entitle them, a decent respect to the opinions of mankind requires that they should declare the causes which impel them to the separation.

We hold these truths to be self-evident, that all men are created equal, that they are endowed by their Creator with certain unalienable Rights, that among these are Life, Liberty and the pursuit of Happiness.–That to secure these rights, Governments are instituted among Men, deriving their just powers from the consent of the governed, –That whenever any Form of Government becomes destructive of these ends, it is the Right of the People to alter or to abolish it, and to institute new Government, laying its foundation on such principles and organizing its powers in such form, as to them shall seem most likely to effect their Safety and Happiness. Prudence, indeed, will dictate that Governments long established should not be changed for light and transient causes; and accordingly all experience hath shewn, that mankind are more disposed to suffer, while evils are sufferable, than to right themselves by abolishing the forms to which they are accustomed. But when a long train of abuses and usurpations, pursuing invariably the same Object evinces a design to reduce them under absolute Despotism, it is their right, it is their duty, to throw off such Government, and to provide new Guards for their future security.–Such has been the patient sufferance of these Colonies; and such is now the necessity which constrains them to alter their former Systems of Government. The history of the present King of Great Britain is a history of repeated injuries and usurpations, all having in direct object the establishment of an absolute Tyranny over these States. To prove this, let Facts be submitted to a candid world.

He has refused his Assent to Laws, the most wholesome and necessary for the public good.

He has forbidden his Governors to pass Laws of immediate and pressing importance, unless suspended in their operation till his Assent should be obtained; and when so suspended, he has utterly neglected to attend to them.

He has refused to pass other Laws for the accommodation of large districts of people, unless those people would relinquish the right of Representation in the Legislature, a right inestimable to them and formidable to tyrants only.

He has called together legislative bodies at places unusual, uncomfortable, and distant from the depository of their public Records, for the sole purpose of fatiguing them into compliance with his measures.

He has dissolved Representative Houses repeatedly, for opposing with manly firmness his invasions on the rights of the people.

He has refused for a long time, after such dissolutions, to cause others to be elected; whereby the Legislative powers, incapable of Annihilation, have returned to the People at large for their exercise; the State remaining in the mean time exposed to all the dangers of invasion from without, and convulsions within.

He has endeavoured to prevent the population of these States; for that purpose obstructing the Laws for Naturalization of Foreigners; refusing to pass others to encourage their migrations hither, and raising the conditions of new Appropriations of Lands.

He has obstructed the Administration of Justice, by refusing his Assent to Laws for establishing Judiciary powers.

He has made Judges dependent on his Will alone, for the tenure of their offices, and the amount and payment of their salaries.

He has erected a multitude of New Offices, and sent hither swarms of Officers to harrass our people, and eat out their substance.

He has kept among us, in times of peace, Standing Armies without the Consent of our legislatures.

He has affected to render the Military independent of and superior to the Civil power.

He has combined with others to subject us to a jurisdiction foreign to our constitution, and unacknowledged by our laws; giving his Assent to their Acts of pretended Legislation:

For Quartering large bodies of armed troops among us:

For protecting them, by a mock Trial, from punishment for any Murders which they should commit on the Inhabitants of these States:

For cutting off our Trade with all parts of the world:

For imposing Taxes on us without our Consent:

For depriving us in many cases, of the benefits of Trial by Jury:

For transporting us beyond Seas to be tried for pretended offences

For abolishing the free System of English Laws in a neighbouring Province, establishing therein an Arbitrary government, and enlarging its Boundaries so as to render it at once an example and fit instrument for introducing the same absolute rule into these Colonies:

For taking away our Charters, abolishing our most valuable Laws, and altering fundamentally the Forms of our Governments:

For suspending our own Legislatures, and declaring themselves invested with power to legislate for us in all cases whatsoever.

He has abdicated Government here, by declaring us out of his Protection and waging War against us.

He has plundered our seas, ravaged our Coasts, burnt our towns, and destroyed the lives of our people.

He is at this time transporting large Armies of foreign Mercenaries to compleat the works of death, desolation and tyranny, already begun with circumstances of Cruelty & perfidy scarcely paralleled in the most barbarous ages, and totally unworthy the Head of a civilized nation.

He has constrained our fellow Citizens taken Captive on the high Seas to bear Arms against their Country, to become the executioners of their friends and Brethren, or to fall themselves by their Hands.

He has excited domestic insurrections amongst us, and has endeavoured to bring on the inhabitants of our frontiers, the merciless Indian Savages, whose known rule of warfare, is an undistinguished destruction of all ages, sexes and conditions.

In every stage of these Oppressions We have Petitioned for Redress in the most humble terms: Our repeated Petitions have been answered only by repeated injury. A Prince whose character is thus marked by every act which may define a Tyrant, is unfit to be the ruler of a free people.

Nor have We been wanting in attentions to our Brittish brethren. We have warned them from time to time of attempts by their legislature to extend an unwarrantable jurisdiction over us. We have reminded them of the circumstances of our emigration and settlement here. We have appealed to their native justice and magnanimity, and we have conjured them by the ties of our common kindred to disavow these usurpations, which, would inevitably interrupt our connections and correspondence. They too have been deaf to the voice of justice and of consanguinity. We must, therefore, acquiesce in the necessity, which denounces our Separation, and hold them, as we hold the rest of mankind, Enemies in War, in Peace Friends.

We, therefore, the Representatives of the United States of America, in General Congress, Assembled, appealing to the Supreme Judge of the world for the rectitude of our intentions, do, in the Name, and by Authority of the good People of these Colonies, solemnly publish and declare, That these United Colonies are, and of Right ought to be Free and Independent States; that they are Absolved from all Allegiance to the British Crown, and that all political connection between them and the State of Great Britain, is and ought to be totally dissolved; and that as Free and Independent States, they have full Power to levy War, conclude Peace, contract Alliances, establish Commerce, and to do all other Acts and Things which Independent States may of right do. And for the support of this Declaration, with a firm reliance on the protection of divine Providence, we mutually pledge to each other our Lives, our Fortunes and our sacred Honor.


Button Gwinnett

Lyman Hall

George Walton

North Carolina

William Hooper

Joseph Hewes

John Penn

South Carolina

Edward Rutledge

Thomas Heyward, Jr.

Thomas Lynch, Jr.

Arthur Middleton


John Hancock


Samuel Chase

William Paca

Thomas Stone

Charles Carroll of Carrollton


George Wythe

Richard Henry Lee

Thomas Jefferson

Benjamin Harrison

Thomas Nelson, Jr.

Francis Lightfoot Lee

Carter Braxton


Robert Morris

Benjamin Rush

Benjamin Franklin

John Morton

George Clymer

James Smith

George Taylor

James Wilson

George Ross


Caesar Rodney

George Read

Thomas McKean

New York

William Floyd

Philip Livingston

Francis Lewis

Lewis Morris

New Jersey

Richard Stockton

John Witherspoon

Francis Hopkinson

John Hart

Abraham Clark

New Hampshire

Josiah Bartlett

William Whipple


Samuel Adams

John Adams

Robert Treat Paine

Elbridge Gerry

Rhode Island

Stephen Hopkins

William Ellery


Roger Sherman

Samuel Huntington

William Williams

Oliver Wolcott

New Hampshire

Matthew Thornton

18th Century Podcast: Episode 4 Gentleman

Listen here: https://anchor.fm/cj123/episodes/18th-Century-Podcast-Episode-4-Gentleman-e46mtf/a-agc30i


In this episode we do an overview of what it meant to be a Gentleman in the 18th Century. This was a very important concept for the time. In this episode we’ll cover: What is a Gentleman, The Social Gentleman, Gentlemen of War, Dueling.



Welcome back to the 18th Century Podcast, I’m your host Cj. Today’s episode will cover a very important concept to the 18th Century, the idea of a Gentleman. Being a Gentleman was a matter of honor, and was extremely important to the people of the 18th Century. If you’d like to read the transcript for this episode and its citations, go to https://18thcentury.home.blog that’s 1, 8, t h, century dot home dot blog. Type the numbers don’t spell them. Now let’s get into what it meant to be a Gentleman of the 18th Century!

PART 1: What is a Gentleman?

Though we are discussing the concept of a Gentleman in the 18th Century, it’s origins date back far earlier. So to get a better understanding of this concept of a Gentleman, let’s go through a brief history of the concept. The word of, “Gentleman” has its roots in Latin, surprise surprise. The “Gentle” part of Gentleman is derived from the Latin, “gentilis” which it could be defined as, “belonging to the same clan… etc.” Jumping forward a bit into the Middle Ages, the concept of a Gentleman was held in a more Military tradition. Though this concept was unsurprisingly geared more towards the nobility. Though there were certain expectations of these early Gentlemen, and codes of conduct arose. As time marched onwards, the ideals of the Gentleman in regards to the Military began to change. Though the concept of action would remain in one form or another. Getting closer to the 17th Century, the concept of a Gentleman was moving from the Military towards the Royal Court. Though those in the Royal Court probably held Military aspects themselves, a Gentleman was moving towards the more social arts. As we start to move towards the 18th Century, the idea of a Gentleman began to move out of politics. The idea of a Gentleman began to be considered by the virtue of a man. Thus it can be inferred that you no longer needed to be born at the very top of the social-political hierarchy, but it was more in the style of how you would conduct yourself. Yes, a Duke could be considered a Gentleman still, but also a wealthy merchant could too. In a sense gave way to more social mobility. Though not in all senses of the word, it leaned towards it. Some common markers of a Gentleman of the 18th Century were education, manners, the type of clothing they wore, among other things as well. Though being a Gentleman in social circles was the trend, it was still present in the Miltary. Let’s cover this in two aspects, the first being in a social manner, and the second being in the Military. Let’s first get into the social.

PART 2: The Social Gentleman

A Gentleman in society was held to certain expectations. There were multiple books written on the topic during the 18th Century. Manners were important to Gentlemen, but the focus laid more heavily towards their morals. As can be inferred, a moral man was part of his virtue. There was an expectation of modesty among these men. One should not speak too highly of themselves. During dinner parties, it was considered polite to only speak among those close to you. It would have been considered impolite to yell from one end of the table to the other. Doing these actions would reflect on your status as a Gentleman. I should note, many of the ideas presented in this section reflect upon the more English idea of a Gentleman, however, there were many common threads across Europe and the Americas which share a commonality with the English. An interesting rule of etiquette which I came across was called, “give the wall” and the thought behind this was as follows, if you as a Gentleman were walking out in public with your Lady, then you would have her walk closest to the walls of shops or other buildings. The purpose was to keep her further away from the filth of the street. And some streets were pretty dirty during the time. In social functions, you would address someone by their last name and their title if they had one. Regarding the education of a Gentleman, they were schooled in the classics. Greek and Latin were very common for the upper-class Gentleman to learn. Other languages might have been taught as well, such as French. Ancient History could have been acquired too. As they would grow into their later teens, they could attend University. At a University a wide array of Academic pursuits could be had. Some of these young Gentleman would skip University and go into the Military. To the educated Gentleman, there were many paths in life to chose from. There was also a certain aspect of how a Gentleman would dress. A Gentleman could be found wearing a three-piece suit. Though the three-piece suit had its origins in the 17th Century, it was popular in the 18th Century. Starting from the basics, underwear. Now, underwear was conceived very differently during the 18th Century than today. The undergarment for Gentlemen was a shirt. To us, this would be very odd just to wear a shirt, but during the time, it was the fashion. Now the shirt would be fairly long and would drop down to about your knees, and it was made from linen. Instead of wearing what we would conceive of as socks, a Gentleman would wear stockings. In our modern setting, women typically wear stockings rather than men, however, in the 18th Century it was worn by both. If you felt like wearing particularly fashionable stockings as a Gentleman, then you would wear your cotton or maybe your silk ones. Regarding your pants, you would wear a common garment which could be found at any level of society, breeches. Your breeches could have been made from a verity of materials. There were breeches made from the like of cotton, wool, and linen, among other materials as well. Then we come to one of the most defining articles of clothing for the time period, in my opinion, the waistcoat. The waistcoat was worn by just about every Gentleman and could be made from a verity of fabrics such as linen, cotton, silk, etc… it would also come in a verity of colors and styles. You might find one man wearing an embroidered waistcoat, and another wearing one more plain. The waistcoat could also be found in a verity of colors, such as red, brown, gold, or whatever your taste was. Then on top of your clothing, you’d wear a coat. The coat was worn with just about every suit and dropped down to about knee length. Upon your head, you’d be wearing another hallmark of the time, a wig. The fashion was to wear a white powdered wig. It was considered in style for the majority of the 18th Century. On top of your wig, you may wear a hat. There was a verity of style of the 18th Century hats, one of the most common which we would recognize would be the tricone, or it could also be called a cocked hat. A quick note on footwear, a Gentleman would typically wear a low heel black shoe made from leather. Boots were also worn, given the proper circumstances. I want to finish this off with the neckwear. One of the most common articles of neckwear was the cravat. The cravat was a piece of white linen which could have been worn in a verity of styles. I’ll cover the cravat more in-depth in another episode along with other clothing. I think I’ve covered the basics of a Gentleman, during the 18th Century in a social setting. I’m going to take a short break and when I get back, we’ll discuss what it meant to be a Gentleman in the Military during the 18th Century. I’ll be right back.

PART 3: Gentlemen of War

Welcome back to the show. We’ll continue our second half of this episode with Gentlemen during times of war. I think it’s obvious to say that the majority of Gentlemen during 18th Century Warfare were Officers. I’ll cover the basics and how they would interact with each other. The topic of war during the 18th Century is a whole episode in and of itself. I’ll be covering the general aspects of warfare in another episode and at some point, I’ll cover specific wars and events related to them. The question I seek to answer here is, how did the Gentlemenly Officers interact with one another. One thing which we may find surprising about the 18th Century Generals was they would keep correspondence with the opposing sides General. For example, during the American War For Independence, British General Howe, once wrote a letter to American General Washington, addressing him as, “George Washington Esquire” instead of the more properly address of “His Excellency General” and General Washington took this as a slight against him and refused to even open the letter. It was looked down upon if you sniped an Officer from a distance, or to shot one in the back. One famous story of this happened during the American Revolution. British Colonel Patrick Ferguson once came upon an American Officer talking with a Hussar. Colonel Ferguson could have shot the men in the back and would have been done with it. He was within range, and he was concealed. However, it would have been ungentlemanly to shoot a man in the back. So, Colonel Ferguson called out to the Americans. Alerting them of his presence was considered the Gentlemanly thing to do. The American Officer and the Hussar fled. It’s thought that that American Officer, was George Washington. There was something else which was unique to the European Officers, and during the 18th Century, they were able to leave one Army to go and serve another. This was an acceptable practice during the time. And because of this, a sense of comradery was built among these Officer Gentlemen. If side A surrendered to side B, then the captured Officers were typically treated well. They were typically viewed as equal Gentlemen to one another. One example of this could be seen after British General Cornwallis’s surrender during the American Revolution. The evening of the surrender, American General Washington hosted a social event for the surrendered Officers. He invited them to dinner. General Cornwallis declined the invitation, claiming to be in poor health, so he sent Brigadier General Charles O’Hara to represent him at the dinner. The proceeding nights brought about a series of these types of dinners where Officers among the Americans and French, would dine with the British and Germans. Though it should be noted that not all the American Officers were too fond of this, as most of them weren’t raised in this tradition. However, General Washington observed the European custom. One could say, it was the Gentlemanly thing to do. This brings us to the end of this segment, and now you’d think this episode would draw to a close, but I’ve prepared a bonus segment for you, Dueling.

PART 4: Dueling

I thought this would be a nice little surprise for you guys. I’m not going into the mechanics of a duel, as that will be a future episode. I’m only going to explain the reasoning behind duels, or a basic sense of their purpose. A duel was a more personal form of combat between Gentleman, and Officers. If one man’s honor was slighted by another, then the first may challenge the offender to a Duel. Dueling was illegal in most places, as it could result in death. The Duel was typically fought with either swords or firearms, typically pistols. Swords were more favored in the 17th Century but as the 18th Century came about, pistols came into fashion. There were pistols specially made just for the purpose of Dueling. There were rules to the Duels. A written version came about in 1777, known as the Code Duello. Here are a few things which you may have been challenged to a Duel for, insulting a man, a disagreement, or in the Military for accusations of cowardice. Perhaps one of the most famous Duels in history was between Aaron Burr and Alexander Hamilton. Hamilton and Burr really weren’t fans of each other in the realm of politics to oversimplify it. Though we’re stepping a little out of the 18th Century and into the early 19th Century, the story is still relevant to the topic presented. Burr had thrown his hat in for a Governorship bid, and Hamilton was publically attacked Burr’s character. Outraged by this, Burr challenged Hamilton to a Duel which was held the morning of July 11th, 1804. Hamilton fired into the air, and Burr fired at Hamilton. By the end of the whole affair, Hamilton was dead. This was just one example of Dueling as it related to Gentleman, and I’ll go more in-depth in another episode dedicated to Dueling.


This brings us to an end of our overview of the 18th Century Gentleman. Like I said at the beginning, the transcript and citations for this episode, and all other episodes can be found at https://18thcentury.home.blog that’s 1, 8, t h, century dot home dot blog. Type the numbers don’t spell them. I know I’ve been talking a bit more about the British and the Americans, but as the episodes go on, I’ll expand outwards to other countries as well. So, if you’d like to support the show, please share it. I’ve been your host Cj, and thank you for listening to this episode of the 18th Century Podcast.


“Gentleman.” Europe, 1450 to 1789: Encyclopedia of the Early Modern World. . Encyclopedia.com. 27 May. 2019 https://www.encyclopedia.com.

Hamilton, Carol V. “Whatever Happened to the Gentleman?” History News Network, historynewsnetwork.org/article/49473.

Hennecke, Megan. “Etiquette in the Eighteenth Century.” Chuma, 20 Mar. 2006, chuma.cas.usf.edu/~runge/Etiquette.htm.

“A Colonial Gentlemen’s Clothing: A Glossary of Terms.” A Colonial Gentlemen’s Clothing: A Glossary of Terms : The Colonial Williamsburg Official History & Citizenship Site, http://www.history.org/history/clothing/men/mglossary.cfm.

“18th Century Ettiquette & Expectations.” Lovers and Liars, 6 Mar. 2013, loversandliarsmedley.wordpress.com/about/a-dramaturgs-perspective/18th-century-ettiquette-expectations/.

“How to Fight Like a Gentleman – Six Astounding Rules of War From the 18th Century.” MilitaryHistoryNow.com, 29 Nov. 2017, militaryhistorynow.com/2016/04/24/gentlemens-war-six-astounding-rules-of-fair-play-from-18th-century-battlefields/.

“The Education of Upper Class Young Men.” BYU Presents PRIDE AND PREJUDICE, 1 Feb. 2014, byuprideandprejudice.wordpress.com/2014/02/05/the-education-of-upper-class-young-men-2/.

Lauterborn, David, and David Lauterborn. “League of Gentlemen: Officers of the 17th and 18th Centuries.” HistoryNet, HistoryNet, 30 June 2015, http://www.historynet.com/league-of-gentlemen-officers-of-the-17th-and-18th-centuries.htm.

“Pistols at Dawn – Officers, Gentlemen and the Deadly Tradition of Duelling.” MilitaryHistoryNow.com, 15 Apr. 2018, militaryhistorynow.com/2016/11/03/pistols-at-dawn-officers-gentlemen-and-duelling-in-the-18th-and-19th-centuries/.

“Burr Slays Hamilton in Duel.” History.com, A&E Television Networks, 24 Nov. 2009, http://www.history.com/this-day-in-history/burr-slays-hamilton-in-duel.


Listen here: https://anchor.fm/cj123/episodes/18th-Century-Podcast-Episode-2-The-Golden-Age-Of-Piracy-e43o8r/a-afqpu2


Welcome to the second episode of the 18th Century Podcast. In today’s episode we’ll do a brief overview of The Golden Age Of Piracy in the 18th Century. Topics include, a brief history, Life On A Pirate Ship, And two short stories from Pirates of the time.



Imagine it’s the early 18th Century. You’re on a merchant’s vessel in the Caribbean. Your cargo, rum. The warmth of the sun beats down upon you, the mist from the sea brushes up against your face. Gulls can be heard overhead. Your getting close to port. One of the crew spots a ship coming from behind. You look through your spyglass and you see it. Possibly another merchant ship. They’re flying the right colors. You think there’s nothing to worry about. Then something strange happens, they lower their flag, and a new one appears. A jolly roger. You prepare your ship for battle, though few would actually do so. As your ships turn to meet, you prepare to… Alas, your barrage has failed and your ship is being boarded. You have fallen victim to Piracy.

PART 1: Overview

Welcome to episode 2 of the 18th Century Podcast, if you couldn’t tell by the intro, we’re going over the Golden Age of Piracy. Or at the very least, a brief overview. The golden age has its roots in the 17th Century. So, two episodes in and I’m already cheating. This episode will be a general overview of the era, but certain aspects may become future episodes themselves. Anyways you may be familiar with names such as Blackbeard, Captain Kidd, or Anne Bonny. But do you know the conditions which forged these men and women? Let’s get to the root of the cause.

PART 2: History

There are a few periods contained within the golden age. We will begin our dive into the Buccaneering period. The first thing which comes to mind is, what is a Buccaneer? They essentially were privateers, and to put it in plain English, legal pirates. These men would most of the time receive what is called, a letter of marques. A letter of marques is what made a person a privateer, or like I said before, a legal pirate. You may be thinking, “legal pirates? What the heck are you talking about?” You see, during times of war in the Carribean, the English among other countries would issue letters of marque so these privateers could legally rob the opposing side. For example, if the English and the Spanish were at war, the English would issue letters of marques so nonmilitary persons could attack Spanish vessels, effectively disrupting economic trade for the Spanish. Then once the goods were obtained by the privateers, they would give part of it to the English government. One of the most famous buccaneers which we may recognize today would be, Henry Morgan, or you may know him by Capitan Morgan. Though this legal form of piracy lasted for some time, it would become the bedrock for what we know as pirates. Now moving towards the 18th century, we get into the real juicy bits. This next period which we’ll concern ourselves with is called The Post Spanish Succession Period. I’ll be the first to admit, it’s a mouthful. Trust me though, it’s important. This period will give rise to some of the most famous pirates in history, like Blackbeard, or Anne Bonny. Leading up to this was, of course, the War of Spanish Succession, which we may get into at a later date. All you need to know is this, once the war ended there were many, “legal pirates,” and former Navymen who suddenly found themselves unemployed. But at least they had their skills! Which amounted to in simplest terms sailing ships, and combat. I think you know where this is heading. Pirates would plague the Carribean for many years. A system of privateers set up by European Kingdoms was now turning on them. Nassau became a major hub for these pirates. If you don’t know where Nassau is, it’s in the Bahamas. Given the geography of the area, it became one of the favorite spots of the pirates. There was also a little thing which arose called, The Republic of Pirates. Though I’ll get into the Republic at a later date. The governments eventually grew tired of the pirates. Then emerged naturally, the pirate hunters. During the 1720s, the golden age would begin to fade. And the pirates would sink into legend.

PART 3: Life on a Pirate Ship

So after going over a brief history of the pirates, what was it like living aboard a ship? To get in the picture of this, we should first look at a typical pirate. What did they wear? What did they eat? What did they fight with? How were they governed? Starting off with the most simple thing first, their clothes. You could find a pirate wearing a linen shirt, which linen was a common material used in the 18th Century. You could also find him wearing trousers, caps, and waistcoats were common too. Then there was one other thing you would find, earrings. Yes! These manly men of the sea wore earrings, and for a very practical purpose too. You see if they died and had had no money on their person for their own burial, the earrings would be sold to offset the funeral costs. But if the combat didn’t kill you, perhaps the food would. Being the lucky sailor which you are, you’ve found yourself devouring a scrumptious ships biscuit, also known as, hardtack. And if you were really lucky, it would be seasoned with weevils. You might also find yourself having a ration of salted beef. Which sounds good, until you’re carving it into buttons. And of course to wash it all down, your favorite drink, rum… or any other alcohol you could get your hands on. Though rum was more available in the Carribean. The pirates’ diet was actually pretty similar to that of an English Navyman. Now that you’re dressed, and you’ve eaten, it’s time for a little adventure. Later in the day, you’ve found yourself drawn into combat on a merchants ship. Their mast was taken out by your cannons chain shot, which is exactly as it sounds. Two cannonballs which would have been chained together. As you climbed unto the merchant’s ship, you fire your muzzleloader, your blunderbuss. Not having time to reload, you reach for you short curved cutlass. A sword battle erupts on the ship, and soon you find yourselves the victors. You take their cargo, which just so happens to be rum. You leave, thrilled with your success. Then at the end of the day, after you received your share, you might spend the rest of the night drinking, with your friends. But be careful not to violate any of the ship’s code, or there will be consequences. For example, if you abandoned ship during battle, you could face death. Or if you snuck aboard a woman, you might also be killed for doing so. All pirates upon a ship had to agree willing or unwillingly to the ship’s code. Each ship had its own unique code too. So for example, gambling might be allowed on one ship, but not another. And of course, you’ll follow the direction of your ships Capitan. Now getting into the rank structure aboard a pirate ship, the Captain, is probably the most famous position. Captains were elected from among the crew. The person taking up the job was usually highly respected among said crew. Then the next most famous position, the First Mate. The First Mate acted as a second in command, and if for any reason the Captain could not perform his duties, then the First Mate would step up. Though not all ships had First Mates, another position which was more common would have been the Quartermaster. The Quartermaster would be in charge of obtaining supplies for the ship and dish out punishments for the crew. There were a couple of other positions of note such as the cooks, the surgeons, and sailing master. Even with this structure, most of the decisions on the ships were voted on. Yes, it wasn’t the Captain who had the final say all the time, the men would vote on what they think would be best for them to do next. And now that I’ve covered a brief overview of the life upon a pirate ship, I’m going to take a short break and be back in a little bit.

PART 4: Anne Bonny & Blackbeard

Welcome back to the show. The second half of the episode will be of two tales. The first being of Anne Bonny, and the second, Blackbeard. Out of all the pirates we know of, Anne Bonny just might be the most famous female pirate. And during the golden age of piracy, there were few women pirates. Anne was born during the latter half of the 17th century in Ireland. Her father was a lawyer, which one would assume would mean she had a good upbringing. Alas, fate had other ideas. You see Anne was an illegitimate child her father had with a servant. Once word of this got out, his reputation was ruined. He took his daughter and her mother to the new world for a fresh start. Anne’s father would take up the law once more in South Carolina, and he bought a plantation. When Anne was in her teens, she would lose her mother. Once Anne reached the age of sixteen, she would fall in love with a man named James Bonny. James was a pirate. I think it’s obvious to say that her father didn’t approve of her choice in men. Anne and James eloped. Her father, being disappointed in his daughter, he kicked her out of his home. Anne and James made their way down to the Carribean. James had a difficult time supporting his young wife on a pirates salary. So he did the next logical thing and became an informant on pirates to the English Government. Anne had become accustomed to the pirate life and had made many friends in the trade. She ended up leaving her husband for Captain Jack Rackam. Though they didn’t have an open relationship, the crew knew what was happening. One night when most of the crew was drunk, they were attacked by a British Navyman, Captain Barnet, who was an ex-pirate himself. Anne’s pirating days had come to an end that October night in 1720. Anne was captured and brought to Port Royal for her trial. She was found guilty and sentenced to death by hanging. Yet Anne found a loophole which saved her life for the time being. She informed the court she was pregnant. They decided to move her date of execution until after she gave birth. However, we’re not sure what happened afterward. Anne was an interesting figure and there’s much speculation around her fate. I find her to be an interesting figure in history. There’s a chance I might go over her story more in-depth in a later episode. But I also stated I’d go over another tale, one of Blackbeard. As you may already know, Blackbeard is one of the most famous pirates to have ever existed. The things he did are almost as famous as his downfall. November 22nd, 1718 would be his last day. But some context first. British Naval Lieutenant Robert Maynard was tasked with taking him down by the then Governor of Virginia. To face off against one of the most fearsome pirates, he took two sloops. Blackbeard and his men were off the coast of Ocracoke Island, North Carolina. His ship was marooned by low tide. The morning of the 22nd Maynard approached seeking combat. During the time, Blackbeard was on a sloop himself and the night previously, he drank with his crew. When Maynard began his attack, the pirates didn’t know he was there, but when they spotted them, Blackbeard and his men began to approach and they fired their weapons. There was a brief exchange between Blackbeard and Maynard. Though after their little chat, Blackbeard fired a broadside. After the bombardment, Blackbeard ordered a boarding of the English ship. Combat erupted aboard the ship. Swords clashed. Men died. And when the smoke cleared, Blackbeard laid dead. The entire confrontation on the ship lasted less than ten minutes. After Maynard’s victory, he cut Blackbeard’s head off. The head was mounted on the ship’s bowsprit. The most famous pirate in history had been vanquished.


Alright, this brings us to the end of our second episode. In future episodes, I’ll go over something brought up more in-depth which were contained in this episode, such as Anne Bonny or Blackbeard, or the Pirate Republic. Next episode, however, I’ll be stepping away from pirates and more towards more traditional 18th Century material. If you’d like to support the show so I can keep making more episodes, please share it. I have been your host Cj, and thank you as we continue our journey through the 18th Century.


Humanity, History of. “Buccaneering Era.” Golden Age of Piracy | Buccaneering Era, http://www.goldenageofpiracy.org/history/buccaneering-era.php.

Humanity, History of. “Letter of Marque.” Golden Age of Piracy | Letter of Marque, http://www.goldenageofpiracy.org/history/letter-of-marque.php.

Humanity, History of. “Post Spanish Succession Period.” Golden Age of Piracy | Post Spanish Succession Period, http://www.goldenageofpiracy.org/history/post-spanish-succession-period.php.

“What Did Pirates Wear?” Reference, IAC Publishing, http://www.reference.com/history/did-pirates-wear-ee70f4bc24aef0d4.

Grundhauser, Eric. “Why Do Pirates Wear Earrings?” Atlas Obscura, Atlas Obscura, 1 June 2016, http://www.atlasobscura.com/articles/why-do-pirates-wear-earrings.

Roux, George, et al. “Eat Like a Pirate.” National Geographic, 23 Jan. 2018, http://www.nationalgeographic.com/people-and-culture/food/the-plate/2014/08/19/eat-like-a-pirate/.

“Weaponry.” A Pirate’s Glossary of Terms, http://www.pirateglossary.com/weaponry.

“Pirate Code of Conduct and Pirate Rules.” Pirate Code – Rules and Code of Conduct for Pirates, http://www.thewayofthepirates.com/pirate-life/pirate-code/.

“Who Is Who – Pirate Ranks on Ship.” Pirate Ranks and Roles on Ship – The Way of the Pirates, http://www.thewayofthepirates.com/pirate-life/who-is-who/.

“Famous Pirate: Anne Bonny.” Anne Bonny – Famous Pirate – The Way of the Pirates, http://www.thewayofthepirates.com/famous-pirates/anne-bonny/.

Dolin, Eric Jay. “Here’s How Blackbeard the Pirate Really Died 300 Years Ago.” Time, Time, 21 Nov. 2018, time.com/5457008/blackbeard-death/.

18th Century Podcast: Episode 1 Introduction

Listen here: https://anchor.fm/cj123/episodes/18th-Century-Podcast-Episode-1-Introduction-e4bfnv/a-ah528d

Welcome to the 18th Century Podcast, I’m your host Cj. If you’d like to read the script for this episode and its citations, go to https://18thcentury.home.blog that’s 1, 8, t h, century dot home dot blog. Type the numbers don’t spell them. As you probably can tell this is merely an introduction episode and I’m going to lay the foundation for this podcast. But I want to give you a little background about why I’m doing this. You see, I love history. Ever since I was a kid, I’ve loved history. There are many times and places I’ve loved, and being from America, the founding period has always captured my interest. Recently I was lucky enough to go on a trip to Virginia to see places like Geroge Washington’s home at Mount Vernon, Thomas Jefferson’s home at Monticello, and Colonial Williamsburg, among other places too. The American War for Independence, the French Revolution, the Age of Enlightenment, and many other wars, people, and movements have fascinated me. I want to learn more about this time period and the people who inhabited it. So you dear listener, I invite you to come along with me as we learn about the 18th Century together. Typical episodes will be about 15-30 minutes long. This introductory episode will be shorter than 15 minutes. Unless its bonus material, expect an average episode to run for 15-30 minutes. My goal is to make this a weekly show. I just want to give you a quick note about the next few episodes, I prerecorded them and, I said transcript but I should have said script which can be read by clicking the link in the description. I was incorrect in saying that, so when you hear me say transcript in the next three episodes, just think script instead, my apologies. I plan on covering just about anything related to this time period, from people to places, from firearms to wars, from cooking to clothing, from games to hunting. I think you get the idea. Many of the first few episodes will lean on the shorter side and closer to the 15-minute mark. As the series progresses I plan to do more deep dives, but for the first few episodes, I will do general overviews of topics. So come along and learn with me about the fascinating time which is the 18th Century!